NFL Jerseys From China PIANO B 4.0 | Note capitolo 9 | Indipendenza Energetica

PIANO B 4.0 | Note capitolo 9

CAPITOLO 9. nutrire bene otto miliadi di persone

1. U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), Production, Supply and Distribution (PS&D), www.fas.usda.gov/psdonline, aggiornato al 12 maggio 2009; USDA, Feedgrains Database, www.ers.usda.gov/Data/feedgrains, aggiornato al 19 maggio 2009.

2. U.N. Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), “FAO-OECD to Weigh Investments Against Hunger”, comunicato stampa (Roma: 4 maggio 2009); Shenggen Fan, Mark W. Rosegrant, Investing in Agriculture to Overcome the World Food Crisis and Reduce Poverty and Hunger (Washington, DC: International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), giugno 2008).

3. USDA, PS&D, op. cit. nota 1; U.N. Population Division, World Population Prospects, The 2008 Revision Population Database, esa.un.org/unpp, aggiornato all’11 marzo 2009.

4. USDA, PS&D, op. cit. nota 1.

5. Serie storiche compilate da Worldwatch Institute da FAO, Fertilizer Yearbook (Roma: varie annualità ), e da Earth Policy Institute from International Fertilizer Industry Association (IFA), IFADATA, www.fertilizer.org/ifa/ifadata/search, 3 febbraio 2009; dati attuali da Patrick Heffer, Medium-Term Outlook for World Agriculture and Fertilizer Demand 2007/08 – 2012/13 (Parigi: IFA, giugno 2008), p. 34, e da IFA, Fertilizer Consumption 2007/08 – 2012/13 Country Reports (Parigi: giugno 2008), pp. 8, 19, 21.

6. Dati sull’irrigazione per 1950-60 compilati da Lester R. Brown, “Eradicating Hunger: A Growing Challenge”, in Lester R. Brown et al., State of the World 2001, W.W. Norton & Company, New York 2001, pp. 52-53; dati per 1961-2007 da FAO, ResourceSTAT, faostat.fao.org, aggiornato ad aprile 2009.

7. Lester R. Brown, Increasing World Food Output: Problems and Prospects, Foreign Agricultural Economic Report n. 25 (Washington, DC: USDA, Economic Research Service (ERS), 1965), pp. 13-14; L.T. Evans, Crop Evolution, Adaptation and Yield, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK 1993, pp. 242-44.

8. USDA, PS&D, op. cit. nota 1; Margriet F. Caswell et al., Agricultural Biotechnology: An Economic Perspective (Washington, DC: USDA, ERS, 1998), p. 19; Kenneth G. Cassman, Adam J. Liska, “Food and Fuel for All: Realistic or Foolish?”, Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining, vol. 1, n. 1 (2007), pp. 18-23.

9. World Food Prize Foundation, “A World-Brand Name: Yuan Longping, The Father of Hybrid Rice”, www.worldfoodprize.org/laureates/yuanspotlight.htm, visionato il 15 luglio 2009.

10. USDA, PS&D, op. cit. nota 1; FAO, FAOSTAT, faostat.fao.org, aggiornato a giugno 2009.

11. USDA, PS&D, op. cit. nota 1.

12. IFA, IFADATA, op. cit. nota 5; IFA, Country Reports, op. cit. nota 5, pp. 8, 19, 21; USDA, PS&D, op. cit. nota 1; USDA, National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS), Crop Production 2008 Summary (Washington, DC: gennaio 2009), p. 5.

13. USDA, PS&D, op. cit. nota 1.

14. Lester R. Brown, Eco-Economy, W.W. Norton & Company, New York 2001, pp. 145-46; Thomas R. Sinclair, “Limits to Crop Yield?” in American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Physiology and Determination of Crop Yield (Madison, WI: 1994), pp. 509-32; USDA, PS&D, op. cit. nota 1.

15. U.N. Population Division, op. cit. nota 3; World Bank, “Malawi, Fertilizer Subsidies and the World Bank”, web.worldbank.org, visionato il 14 luglio 2008; Celia W. Dugger, “Ending Famine, Simply by Ignoring the Experts”, New York Times, 2 dicembre 2007; USDA, PS&D, op. cit. nota 1.

16. Ben Block, “African Leaders Pursue ‘Malawi Miracle'”, Eye on Earth, www.worldwatch.org, 26 maggio 2009.

17. USDA, op. cit. nota 12, pp. 5, 13.

18. USDA, PS&D, op. cit. nota 1; 1950 dati da USDA, in Worldwatch Institute, Signposts 2001, CD-ROM (Washington, DC: 2001).

19. Jorge Sanchez, Jiang Junyang, China Grain and Feed Annual 2009 (Beijing: USDA, marzo 2009); USDA, PS&D, op. cit. nota 1.

20. A. Govindian, India Grain and Feed Annual 2009 (New Delhi: USDA, febbraio 2009); USDA, PS&D, op. cit. nota 1; U.N. Population Division, op. cit. nota 3.

21. Richard Magleby, “Soil Management and Conservation”, in USDA, Agricultural Resources and Environmental Indicators 2003 (Washington, DC: febbraio 2003), capitolo 4.2, p. 14.

22. USDA, PS&D, op. cit. nota 1; Randall D. Schnepf et al., Agriculture in Brazil and Argentina (Washington, DC: USDA ERS, 2001), pp. 8-10.

23. Pedro Sanchez, “The Climate Change-Soil Fertility-Food Security Nexus” (Bonn: IFPRI, 4 settembre 2001).

24. Edward Cody, “Chinese Lawmakers Approve Measure to Protect Private Property Rights”, Washington Post, 17 marzo 2007; Jim Yardley, “China Nears Passage of Landmark Property Law”, New York Times, 9 marzo 2007; Zhu Keliang, Roy Prosterman, “From Land Rights to Economic Boom”, China Business Review, luglio/agosto 2006.

25. Produttività  terriera da USDA, PS&D, op. cit. nota 1, con dati pre-1961 da USDA, in Worldwatch Institute, op. cit. nota 18; fabbisogno d’acqua per la produzione di cereali da FAO, Yield Response to Water (Roma: 1979).

26. Consumo d’acqua da I.A. Shiklomanov, “Assessment of Water Resources and Water Availability in the World”, Report for the Comprehensive Assessment of the Freshwater Resources of the World (St. Petersburg, Russia: State Hydrological Institute, 1998), citato in Peter H. Gleick, The World’s Water 2000-2001 (Washington, DC: Island Press, 2000), p. 53; Sandra Postel, Amy Vickers, “Boosting Water Productivity”, in Worldwatch Institute, State of the World 2004, W. W. Norton & Company, New York 2004), pp. 51-52.

27. Wang Shucheng, conversazione con l’autore, Beijing, maggio 2004.

28. FAO, Crops and Drops (Roma: 2002), p. 17; Alain Vidal, Aline Comeau, Hervé Plusquellec, Case Studies on Water Conservation in the Mediterranean Region (Roma: FAO, 2001), p. vii.

29. Postel, Vickers, op. cit. nota 26, p. 53.

30. Sandra Postel et al., “Drip Irrigation for Small Farmers: A New Initiative to Alleviate Hunger and Poverty”, Water International, marzo 2001, pp. 3-13.

31. Ibid.

32. “Punjab’s Depleting Groundwater Stagnates Agricultural Growth”, Down to Earth, vol. 16, n. 5 (30 luglio 2007).

33. R. Maria Saleth, Arial Dinar, Water Challenge and Institutional Response: A Cross-Country Perspective (Washington, DC: World Bank, 1999), p. 6; Comisià³n Nacional del Agua (CONAGUA), National Water Program 2007-2012 (Coyoacà¡n, Messico: febbraio 2008), p. 71.

34. World Bank e Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation, Summary Report, Middle East and North Africa Regional Water Initiative Workshop on Sustainable Groundwater Management, Sana’a, Yemen, 25-28 giugno 2000, p. 19; Mei Xie, World Bank Institute, e-mail a J. Matthew Roney, Earth Policy Institute, 10 luglio 2009.

35. USDA, PS&D, op. cit. nota 1; Cynthia Guven, Sherif Ibrahim, Egypt Grain and Feed Annual 2009 (Cairo: USDA, marzo 2009); “Rice Cropped for Water”, China Daily, 9 gennaio 2002; National Bureau of Statistics of China, Statistical Data, www.stats.gov.cn/ english/statisticaldata/yearlydata, visionato il 9 giugno 2009.

36. U.N. Population Division, op. cit. nota 3; USDA, PS&D, op. cit. nota 1; calcoli sull’acqua basati sull’equivalenza tra 1.000 tonnelate di acqua per una tonnellata di grano da FAO, op. cit. nota 25.

37. USDA, PS&D, op. cit. nota 1.

38. FAO, 1948-1985 World Crop and Livestock Statistics (Rome: 1987); FAO, op. cit. nota 10; U.N. Population Division, op. cit. nota 3.

39. Tassi di conversione per il pollame da Robert V. Bishop et al., The World Poultry Market – Government Intervention and Multilateral Policy Reform (Washington, DC: USDA, 1990); per il manzo Allen Baker, Feed Situation e Outlook staff, ERS, USDA, conversazione con l’autore, 27 aprile 1992; per il maiale Leland Southard, Livestock and Poultry Situation and Outlook staff, ERS, USDA, conversazione con l’autore, 27 aprile 1992; per il pesce Rosamond Naylor et al., “Effect of Aquaculture on World Fish Supplies”, Nature, vol. 405 (29 giugno 2000), pp. 1.017-24.

40. FAO, op. cit. nota 10.

41. FAO, FISHSTAT Plus, www.fao.org, aggiornato a febbraio 2009; Naylor et al., op. cit. nota 39.

42. FAO, op. cit. nota 41; Taija-Riitta Tuominen, Maren Esmark, Food for Thought: The Use of Marine Resources in Fish Feed (Oslo: WWF-Norway, 2003); Rosamond Naylor, Marshall Burke, “Aquaculture and Ocean Resources: Raising Tigers of the Sea”, Annual Review of Environmental Resources, vol. 30 (novembre 2005), pp. 185-218.

43. FAO, op. cit. nota 41.

44. S.F. Li, “Aquaculture Research and Its Relation to Development in China”, in World Fish Center, Agricultural Development and the Opportunities for Aquatic Resources Research in China (Penang, Malaysia: 2001), p. 26; FAO, op. cit. nota 41.

45. FAO, op. cit. nota 10; FAO, op. cit. nota 41.

46. Naylor et al., op. cit. nota 39; W.C. Nandeesha et al., “Breeding of Carp with Oviprim”, in Indian Branch, Asian Fisheries Society, India, Special Publication n. 4 (Mangalore, India: 1990), p. 1.

47. “Mekong Delta to Become Biggest Aquatic Producer in Vietnam”, Vietnam News Agency, 3 agosto 2004; “The Mekong Delta Goes Ahead with the WTO”, Vietnam Economic News online, 8 giugno 2007; FAO, op. cit. nota 41.

48. Naylor et al., op. cit. nota 39; FAO, op. cit. nota 41; USDA, NASS, Catfish Production (Washington, DC: 30 gennaio 2009), pp. 17-20; U.N. Population Division, op. cit. nota 3.

49. USDA, Foreign Agricultural Service, Oilseeds: World Markets and Trade (Washington, DC: maggio 2009).

50. USDA, PS&D, op. cit. nota 1.

51. Serie storiche da USDA, in Worldwatch Institute, op. cit. nota 18; USDA, PS&D, op. cit. nota 1.

52. FAO, op. cit. nota 10.

53. S.C. Dhall, Meena Dhall, “Dairy Industry – India’s Strength in Its Livestock”, Business Line, Internet Edition of Financial Daily, Hindu group of publications, 7 novembre 1997; Surinder Sud, “India Is Now World’s Largest Milk Producer”, India Perspectives, maggio 1999, pp. 25-26; A. Banerjee, “Dairying Systems in India”, World Animal Review, vol. 79, n. 2 (1994).

54. FAO, op. cit. nota 10; U.N. Population Division, op. cit. nota 3.

55. Dhall, Dhall, op. cit. nota 53; Banerjee, op. cit. nota 53; FAO, op. cit. nota 10.

56. John Wade, Adam Branson, Xiang Qing, China Grain and Feed Annual Report 2002 (Beijing: USDA, 2002); Gao Tengyun, “Treatment and Utilization of Crop Straw and Stover in China”, Livestock Research for Rural Development, febbraio 2000.

57. USDA, ERS, “China’s Beef Economy: Production, Marketing, Consumption, and Foreign Trade”, International Agriculture and Trade Reports: China (Washington, DC: luglio 1998), p. 28.

58. FAO, op. cit. nota 10; FAO, op. cit. nota 41; U.N. Population Division, op. cit. nota 3.

59. U.N. Population Division, op. cit. nota 3; China’s economic growth from International Monetary Fund (IMF), World Economic Outlook Database, www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo, aggiornato ad aprile 2009; FAO, FAOSTAT, faostat.fao.org, aggiornato al 30 giugno 2007.

60. Lisa McLaughlin, “Inner-City Farms”, Time, 4 agosto 2008; Caryn Rousseau, “More Schools Cultivate Learning in Student Gardens”, Associated Press, 17 novembre 2008; USDA, Agricultural Marketing Service, “Farmers Market Growth: 1994-2008”, www.ams.usda.gov, aggiornato al 22 settembre 2008.

61. Trend storici da Carolyn Dimitri, Anne Effland, Neilson Conklin, The 20th Century Transformation of U.S. Agriculture and Farm Policy (Washington, DC: USDA, ERS, giugno 2005), p. 5; USDA, NASS, 2007 Census of Agriculture (Washington, DC: febbraio 2009), pp. 7, 64, 110-11; Andrew Martin, “Farm Living (Subsidized by a Job Elsewhere)”, New York Times, 8 febbraio 2009.

62. Martin, op. cit. nota 61; USDA, op. cit. nota 61, pp. 52, 66-67.

63. Marian Burros, “Obamas to Plant Vegetable Garden at White House”, New York Times, 20 marzo 2009; Michael Pollan, “Farmer in Chief”, New York Times Magazine, 12 ottobre 2008.

64. Cristina Milesi et al., “Mapping and Modeling the Biogeochemical Cycling of Turf Grasses in the United States”, Environmental Management, vol. 36, n. 3 (19 luglio 2005), pp. 426-38.

65. McLaughlin, op. cit. nota 60; “Digging Their Way Out of Recession”, The Economist, 26 febbraio 2009; Adrian Higgins, “Community Gardens Need Room to Grow”, Washington Post, 14 febbraio 2008.

66. USDA, op. cit. nota 60; totale attuale da Joan Shaffer, USDA, Agricultural Marketing Service, conversazione con J. Matthew Roney, Earth Policy Institute, 13 maggio 2009; Valerie Bauman, “More Farmers Markets to Accept Food Stamps”, Associated Press, 26 agosto 2008.

67. Rousseau, op. cit. nota 60; Mary MacVean, “Maria Shriver Says Edible Garden Will Be Planted in Capitol Park Flower Bed”, Los Angeles Times, 27 marzo 2009.

68. Marian Burros, “Supermarket Chains Narrow Their Sights”, New York Times, 6 agosto 2008; “Digging Their Way Out of Recession”, op. cit. nota 65.

69. Rich Pirog, Andrew Benjamin, Checking the Food Odometer: Comparing Food Miles for Local Versus Conventional Produce Sales to Iowa Institutions (Ames, IA: Leopold Center for Sustainable Agriculture, Iowa State University, luglio 2003); Michael Pollan, In Defense of Food (New York: The Penguin Group, 2008), pp. 157-58; Marc Xuereb, Food Miles: Environmental Implications of Food Imports to Waterloo Region (Waterloo, ON: Region of Waterloo Public Health, novembre 2005); Erika Engelhaupt, “Do Food Miles Matter?”, Environmental Science and Technology Online, pubs.acs.org, 16 aprile 2008.

70. “The Environment: Not on the Label”, The Economist, 19 maggio 2007; John Waples, “Tesco Turns Itself into a Green Giant”, Sunday Times (Londra), 31 maggio 2009; Tesco PLC, “Tesco Wins Green ‘Gold Standard’ Award”, comunicato stampa (Hertfordshire, U.K.: 5 giugno 2009); Miles Costello, “Tesco Reports Record ï¿¡3 Billion Profit”, The Times (Londra), 21 aprile 2009.

71. Lauren Etter, “Lofty Prices for Fertilizer Put Farmers in a Squeeze”, Wall Street Journal, 27 maggio 2008; David A. Vaccari, “Phosphorus: A Looming Crisis”, Scientific American, giugno 2009, pp. 54-59.

72. Program for Appropriate Technology in Health and U.N. Population Fund, Meeting the Need: Strengthening Family Planning Programs (Seattle, WA: 2006), pp. 5-11.

73. Calcoli dell’autore da USDA, PS&D, op. cit. nota 1; U.N. Population Division, op. cit. nota 3.

74. USDA, PS&D, op. cit. nota 1; U.N. Population Division, op. cit. nota 3; FAO, FAOSTAT, faostat.fao.org, aggiornato a maggio 2008.

75. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, “Total Health Expenditure per Capita, US$ PPP”, in OECD Health Data 2008 – Frequently Requested Data, www.oecd.org, dicembre 2008; FAO, op. cit. nota 59.

76. Gidon Eshel, Pamela A. Martin, “Diet, Energy, and Global Warming”, Earth Interactions, vol. 10, n. 9 (aprile 2006), pp. 1-17.

77. Dati sul pollame da Bishop et al., op. cit. nota 39; sul manzo da Baker, op. cit. nota 39; sul pesce da Naylor et al., op. cit. nota 39.

78. Stime sull’area dei terreni da Stanley Wood, Kate Sebastian, Sara J. Scherr, Pilot Analysis of Global Ecosystems: Agroecosystems (Washington, DC: IFPRI and World Resources Institute, 2000), p. 3.

79. Raccolti da USDA, NASS, Agricultural Statistics 2008 (Washington, DC: 2008), pp. I-21, III-16.

80. USDA, PS&D, op. cit. nota 1; USDA, Feedgrains Database, op. cit. nota 1; U.N. Population Division, op. cit. nota 3.

81. Capitali investiti nell’acquisto di terre da Joachim von Braun, IFPRI, citato in Joe DeCapua, “Food Crisis Triggers Land Grab in Developing Countries”, Voice of America News, 29 aprile 2009.