PIANO B 4.0 | Note capitolo 6

CAPITOLO 6. progettare città  a misura d’uomo

1. U.N. Population Division, World Urbanization Prospects: The 2007 Revision Population Database, esa.un.org/unup, aggiornato 2008.

2. Popolazione urbana nel 1900 da Mario Polà¤se, “Urbanization and Development”, Development Express, n. 4, 1997; U.N. Population Division, World Urbanization Prospects: The 2007 Revision (New York: febbraio 2008).

3. Molly O’Meara, Reinventing Cities for People and the Planet, Worldwatch Paper 147 (Washington, DC: Worldwatch Institute, giugno 1999), pp. 14-15; U.N. Population Division, op. cit. nota 2, pp. 8-10; U.N. Population Division, World Population Prospects: The 2008 Revision Population Database, esa.un.org/unpp, aggiornato all’11 marzo 2009.

4. Christopher Flavin, “Hearing on Asia’s Environmental Challenges: Testimony of Christopher Flavin”, Committee on International Relations, U.S. House of Representatives, Washington, DC, 22 settembre 2004; Subir Bhaumik, “Air Pollution Suffocates Calcutta”, BBC News, 3 maggio 2007; David Schrank, Tim Lomax, 2007 Urban Mobility Report (College Station, TX: Texas Transportation Institute, settembre 2007), p. 1.

5. Francesca Lyman, “Twelve Gates to the City: A Dozen Ways to Build Strong, Livable, and Sustainable Cities”, Words and Pictures Magazine, numero 5, 2007; Lisa Jones, “A Tale of Two Mayors: The Improbable Story of How Bogota, Colombia, Became Somewhere You Might Actually Want To Live”, Grist Magazine, 4 aprile 2002.

6. Claudia Nanninga, “Energy Efficient Transport – A Solution for China”, Voices of Grassroots, novembre 2004; Enrique Peà±alosa, “Parks for Livable Cities: Lessons from a Radical maggioor”, Urban Parks Institute’s Great Parks/Great Cities Conference, Chicago, 30 luglio 2001; Susan Ives, “The Politics of Happiness”, Trust for Public Land, 9 agosto 2002; Jones, op. cit. nota 5.

7. Peà±alosa, op. cit. nota 6.

8. Lara de Lacerda Santos Rodrigues, Curitiba City Government, e-mail a J. Matthew Roney, Earth Policy Institute, 24 luglio 2009.

9. O’Meara, op. cit. nota 3.

10. Los Angeles da Sandra Postel, Last Oasis, rev. ed., W.W. Norton & Company, New York 1997, p. 20; Joel Simon, Endangered Mexico, Sierra Club Books, San Francisco 1997; Chinese Ministry of Water Resources, Country Report of the People’s Republic of China (Marsiglia, Francia: World Water Council, 2003), pp. 60-61.

11. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Foreign Agricultural Service, Grain: World Markets and Trade and Oilseeds: World Markets and Trade (Washington, DC: vari numeri).

12. Richard Register, “Losing the World, One Environmental Victory at a Time – And a Way to Solve That Problem” (Oakland, CA: Ecocity Builders, Inc., 31 agosto 2005); Richard Register, Ecocities: Rebuilding Cities in Balance with Nature: Revised Edition (Gabriola Island, BC: New Society Publishers, 2006).

13. Register, “Losing the World, One Environmental Victory at a Time”, op. cit. nota 12; stime sulla popolazione da U.S. Census Bureau, State & County Quickfacts, quickfacts.census.gov, aggiornato al 5 maggio 2009.

14. Register, “Losing the World, One Environmental Victory at a Time”, op. cit. nota 12.

15. Berliner Verkehrsbetriebe (BVG), “Means of Transport & Routes”, www.bvg.de, visionato l’11 maggio 2009.

16. Jay Walljasper, “Unjamming the Future”, Ode, ottobre 2005, pp. 36-41; Breakthrough Technologies Institute, Transport Innovator newsletter (vari numeri); Victoria Transport Policy Institute, “Bus Rapid Transit”, Online TDM Encyclopedia, aggiornato al 22 luglio 2008; Institute for Transportation & Development Policy (ITDP), “China Bus Rapid Transit”, www.chinaBRT.org, aggiornato al 1° maggio 2009.

17. Bernardo Baranda, “Insurgentes Sur BRT Line Opens in Mexico City”, ITDP, www.itdp.org, 24 giugno 2008; Bernardo Baranda, “Mexico City Opens Second BRT Corridor”, ITDP, www.itdp.org, 21 dicembre 2008; Karl Fjellstrom, “Guangzhou BRT Construction Begins”, ITDP, www.itdp.org, 17 dicembre 2008; Karl Fjellstrom, ITDP, e-mail a J. Matthew Roney, Earth Policy Institute, 25 maggio 2009.

18. Tehran Public & International Relations Department, “Tehran maggioor Inaugurates 1st BRT Line”, www.tehran.ir, visionato il 17 maggio 2009; Victoria Transport Policy Institute, op. cit. nota 16; Breakthrough Technologies Institute, op. cit. nota 16.

19. Molly O’Meara Sheehan, “Making Better Transportation Choices”, in Lester R. Brown et al., State of the World 2001, W.W. Norton & Company, New York 2001, p. 116.

20. William D. Eggers, Peter Samuel, Rune Munk, Combating Gridlock: How Pricing Road Use Can Ease Congestion (New York: Deloitte, novembre 2003); Tom Miles, “London Drivers to Pay UK’s First Congestion Tax”, Reuters, 28 febbraio 2002; Randy Kennedy, “The Day the Traffic Disappeared”, New York Times Magazine, 20 aprile 2003, pp. 42-45; James Savage, “Congestion Charge Returns to Stockholm”, The Local, 1° agosto 2007; www.oanda.com/convert/classic.

21. Transport for London, Central London Congestion Charging: Impacts Monitoring (Londra: varie annualità ).

22. “Milan to Impose ‘Pollution Charge’ on Cars”, Reuters, 23 luglio 2007; “Milan Introduces Traffic Charge”, BBC News, 2 gennaio 2008; Malia Wollan, “San Francisco Studies Fees to Ease Traffic”, New York Times, 3 gennaio 2009; “Thousands Demonstrate Against Kyiv maggioor’s Policies”, Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, 12 febbraio 2009; Paul Melia, “Drivers Facing Congestion Charge within Three Years”, Independent (Dublino), 27 gennaio 2009; Mathew Dearnaley, “Road Tolls a Hot Potato Since the Harbour Bridge”, New Zealand Herald, 26 agosto 2008.

23. Serge Schmemann, “I Love Parigi on a Bus, a Bike, a Train and in Anything but a Car”, New York Times, 26 luglio 2007; Katrin Bennhold, “A New French Revolution’s Creed: Let Them Ride Bikes”, New York Times, 16 luglio 2007.

24. Steven Erlanger, “A New Fashion Catches on in Parigi: Cheap Bicycle Rentals”, New York Times, 13 luglio 2008; City of Paris, “Vélib: Subscriptions and Prices”, www.en.velib.paris.fr, visionato il 12 maggio 2009; Alexandra Topping, “Free Wheeling: Parigi’s New Bike System”, Washington Post, 23 settembre 2007; numero di noleggi nel maggio 2009 da JCDecaux, conversazione con J. Matthew Roney, 14 maggio 2009.

25. Schmemann, op. cit. nota 23; La Fédération de Parigi du Parti Socialiste, ed., Ce Que Nous Avons Fait Ensemble (Parigi: Office of maggioor Bertrand Delanoà«, 2007), pp. 20-25; espansione del programma da JCDecaux, op. cit. nota 24; Alok Jha, “Boris Johnson Unveils Blueprint for London’s ‘Cycling Revolution'”, Guardian (Londra), 27 aprile 2009.

26. John Ritter, “Narrowed Roads Gain Acceptance in Colo., Elsewhere”, USA Today, 29 luglio 2007; John Ritter, “‘Complete Streets’ Program Gives More Room for Pedestrians, Cyclists”, USA Today, 29 luglio 2007.

27. National Complete Streets Coalition, “Complete the Streets: Who We Are”, www.completestreets.org/whoweare.html, visionato il 16 agosto 2007; AARP, “About AARP”, www.aarp.org/aarp/About_AARP, visionato il 12 maggio 2009; Ritter, “Narrowed Roads”, op. cit. nota 26.

28. National Complete Streets Coalition, “Illinois Passes Complete Streets Law”, comunicato stampa (Washington, DC: 16 ottobre 2007); Stefanie Seskin, National Complete Streets Coalition, e-mail a J. Matthew Roney, Earth Policy Institute, 28 maggio 2009; Office of Congresswoman Doris Matsui, “Congresswoman Matsui and Senator Harkin Introduce Bill to Make Streets Safer and Encourage Healthier America”, comunicato stampa (Washington, DC: 12 marzo 2009).

29. U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, Nationwide Personal Transportation Study: Transportation Characteristics of School Children (Washington, DC: luglio 1972), p. 3; American Academy of Pediatrics, Committee on Injury, Violence, and Poison Prevention and Council on School Health, “Policy Statement: School Transportation Safety”, Pediatrics, vol. 120, n. 1 (luglio 2007), pp. 213-20; International Walk to School, “About the Walk”, www.iwalkto school.org/about.htm, visionato il 12 maggio 2009.

30. La riduzione dell’utilizzo dell’auto è stimata dall’autore.

31. O’Meara, op. cit. nota 3, p. 45.

32. J. Matthew Roney, “Bicycles Pedaling into the Spotlight”, Eco-Economy Indicator (Washington, DC: Earth Policy Institute, 12 maggio 2008); Ward’s Automotive Group, World Motor Vehicle Data 2008 (Southfield, MI: 2008), pp. 239-42; German Eslava, “1st in EU: Italian Government Spurs Bike Sales with Incentives”, Bike Europe, www.bike-eu.com, 28 aprile 2009; Jack Oortwijn, Jan-Willem van Schaik, “European Bike Season Kicks Off with Record Highs”, Bike Europe, www.bike-eu.com, 12 maggio 2009; Jan-Willem van Schaik, “Giant Targets 10% Growth in 2009”, Bike Europe, www.bike-eu.com, 21 aprile 2009.

33. Calcolato da Earth Policy Institute da U.N. Population Division, op. cit. nota 3, da una media di 3,44 persone per abitazione in Cina in Bingham Kennedy, Jr., Dissecting China’s 2000 Census (Washington, DC: Population Reference Bureau, giugno 2001), e da National Bureau of Statistics of China data citato in Jme McLean, “Backpedal to the Future: China’s Strength is in Its Bicycles”, E Magazine, www.emagazine.com/view/?3729, visionato il 15 gennaio 2008; tasso di proprietà  da Netherlands Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management and Fietsberaad, Cycling in the Netherlands (The Hague and Utrecht: 2009), p. 14.

34. Produzione di biciclette in Cina da United Nations, Yearbook of Industrial Statistics (New York: varie annualità ) e da Industrial Commodity Statistics Yearbook (New York: varie annualità ); “World Players in the Bicycle Market 2000-2007”, in John Crenshaw, Bicycle Retailer and Industry News, e-mail a J. Matthew Roney, Earth Policy Institute, 9 maggio 2008; automobili in Cina daWard’s Automotive Group, op. cit. nota 32.

35. Percentuale delle forze di polizia da Matthew Hickman, Brian A. Reaves, Local Police Departments, 2003 (Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, maggio 2006), pp. 3, 13; tassi da arresto riportati da un poliziotto di Washington, DC durante una conversazione con l’autore.

36. Katie Zezima, “With Free Bikes, Challenging Car Culture on Campus”, New York Times, 20 ottobre 2008.

37. Ibid.

38. Glenn Collins, “Old Form of Delivery Thrives in New World of E-Commerce”, New York Times, 24 dicembre 1999.

39. O’Meara, op. cit. nota 3, pp. 47-48; John Pucher, Ralph Buehler, “Making Cycling Irresistible: Lessons from the Netherlands, Denmark, and Germany”, Transport Reviews, vol. 28, numero 4 (luglio 2008), pp. 495-528.

40. Pucher, Buehler, op. cit. nota 39.

41. Cornelia Dean, “Bicycle Evangelist with the Wind Now at His Back”, New York Times, 13 gennaio 2009.

42. O’Meara, op. cit. nota 3, pp. 47-48; Fietsberaad, “Amsterdam: for the First Time More Transfers by Bike than by Car”, www.fietsberaad.nl, 22 gennaio 2009.

43. Walljasper, op. cit. nota 16; Interface for Cycling Expertise (I-ce), “Bicycle Partnership Program”, www.bikepartners.nl, visionato il 12 maggio 2009.

44. O’Meara, op. cit. nota 3, pp. 47-48; Giappone da osservazioni dell’autore.

45. Jonathan Weinert, Chaktan Ma, Chris Cherry, “Transition to Electric Bikes in China: History and Key Reasons for Rapid Growth”, Transportation, vol. 34, n. 3 (maggio 2007), pp. 301-18; Austin Ramzy, “On the Streets of China, Electric Bikes Are Swarming”, Time, 14 giugno 2009; “India 2007: LEVs to Grow to 70,000 Units”, Bike Europe, www.bikeeu.com, 15 maggio 2008; Vietnam News Agency, “Helmet Aversion, Petrol Boost Bicycle Sales”, Viet Nam News, 8 ottobre 2007; Elliot Gluskin, Gluskin Townley Group, conversazione con J. Matthew Roney, Earth Policy Institute, 16 giugno 2009; Jack Oortwijn, “E-Bikes Beat the Crisis”, Bike Europe, 8 aprile 2009.

46. Sunita Narain, “The Flush Toilet is Ecologically Mindless”, Down to Earth, 28 febbraio 2002, pp. 28-32; zone morte (dead zones) da Robert J. Diaz, Rutger Rosenberg, “Spreading Dead Zones and Consequences for Marine Ecosystems”, Science, vol. 321 (15 agosto 2008), pp. 926-29; World Health Organization (WHO), World Health Report 2007 (Ginevra: 2007), p. 4; U.N. Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), The State of Food Insecurity in the World 2005 (Roma: 2005).

47. Narain, op. cit. nota 46.

48. Ibid.

49. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), “Water Efficiency Technology Factsheet – Composting Toilets” (Washington, DC: settembre 1999); Jack Kieffer, Appalachia –Science in the Public Interest, Humanure: Preparation of Compost from the Toilet for Use in the Garden (Mount Vernon, KY: ASPI Publications, 1998).

50. EPA, op. cit. nota 49; EPA, “Wastewater Virtual Tradeshow Technologies”, www.epa.gov/region1/assistance/ceitts/wastewater/techs.html, aggiornato al 14 aprile 2009; persone senza servizi igienici da WHO e UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation, Progress on Drinking Water and Sanitation: Special Focus on Sanitation (Ginevra e New York: 2008), p. 2.

51. Rose George, “Yellow is the New Green”, (editoriale), New York Times, 27 febbraio 2009.

52. Tony Sitathan, “Bridge Over Troubled Waters”, Asia Times, 23 agosto 2002; “Singapore Opens Fourth Recycling Plant to Turn Sewage into Water”, Associated Press, 12 luglio 2005; Randal C. Archibold, “From Sewage, Added Water for Drinking”, New York Times, 27 novembre 2007; Randal C. Archibold, “Los Angeles Eyes Sewage as a Source of Water”, New York Times, 16 maggio 2008.

53. Peter H. Gleick, The World’s Water 2004-2005: The Biennial Report on Freshwater Resources, Island Press, Washington, DC, 2004, p. 149.

54. Ibid.

55. “Farming in Urban Areas Can Boost Food Security”, FAO Newsroom, 3 giugno 2005.

56. Ibid.

57. Jac Smit, “Urban Agriculture’s Contribution to Sustainable Urbanisation”, Urban Agriculture, agosto 2002, p. 13; Hubert de Bon, “Dry and Aquatic Peri-urban and Urban Horticulture in Hanoi, Vietnam”, in René van Veenhuizen, ed., Cities Farming for the Future – Urban Agriculture for Green and Productive Cities (Philippines: ETC-Urban Agriculture, 2006), pp. 338-39.

58. Smit, op. cit. nota 57, p. 13; estensione dei laghetti per acquacultura da Nitai Kundu et al., “Planning for Aquatic Production in East Kolkata Wetlands”, in van Veenhuizen, op. cit. nota 57, pp. 408-09; produzione di pesce da Stuart Bunting et al., “Urban Aquatic Production”, in van Veenhuizen, op. cit. nota 57, p. 386.

59. Smit, op. cit. nota 57, p. 12.

60. “Gardening for the Poor”, FAO Newsroom, 2004; P. Bradley, C. Marulanda, “A Study on Microgardens That Help Reduce Global Poverty and Hunger”, Acta Horticulturae (ISHS), vol. 742 (2007), pp. 115-23.

61. Katherine H. Brown, Anne Carter, Urban Agriculture and Community Food Security in the United States: Farming from the City Center to the Urban Fringe (Venice, CA: Community Food Security Coalition, ottobre 2003), p. 10.

62. Ibid., p. 7.

63. Ibid.

64. U.N. Population Division, op. cit. nota 3; U.N. Population Division, op. cit. nota 2, p. 1.

65. Hari Srinivas, “Defining Squatter Settlements”, Global Development Research Center web site, www.gdrc.org/uem/define-squatter.html, visionato il 9 agosto 2005.

66. Ibid.

67. O’Meara, op. cit. nota 3, p. 39.

68. Rasna Warah, The Challenge of Slums: Global Report on Human Settlements 2003 (New York: U.N. Human Settlements Programme, 2003).

69. Srinivas, op. cit. nota 65.

70. E.O. Wilson, Biophilia, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA 1984; S.R. Kellert, E.O. Wilson, eds., The Biophilia Hypothesis, Island Press, Washington, DC,1993.

71. Theodore Roszak, Mary Gomes, Allen Kanner, eds., Restoring the Earth, Healing the Mind, Sierra Club Books, San Francisco 1995.

72. American Public Transportation Association (APTA), “Unlinked Passenger Trips by Mode (Millions)”, in 2009 Public Transportation Fact Book, Part 2: Historical Tables (Washington, DC: aprile 2009), pp. 1-2; APTA, Public Transportation Ridership Report: Fourth Quarter 2008 (Washington, DC: 5 marzo 2009).

73. Ding Guangwei, Li Shishun, “Analysis of Impetuses to Change of Agricultural Land Resources in China”, Bulletin of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, vol. 13, n. 1 (1999).

74. Ayres, McHenry & Associates, “Survey of Metro Atlanta Registered Voters Regarding Transportation Issues”, Transit Planning Board (Alexandria, VA: marzo 2008); Molly O’Meara Sheehan, City Limits: Putting the Breaks on Sprawl, Worldwatch Paper 156 (Washington, DC: Worldwatch Institute, giugno 2001), p. 11; David Schrank, Tim Lomax, 2005 Urban Mobility Study (College Station, TX: Texas Transportation Institute, maggio 2005); Luc Nadal, “Bike Sharing Sweeps Parigi Off Its Feet”, Sustainable Transport, 2007, pp. 8-13.

75. Jim Motavalli, “The High Cost of Free Parking”, E: The Environmental Magazine, marzo-aprile 2005; Donald Shoup, The High Cost of Free Parking (Chicago: American Planning Association Planners Press, 2005), p. 591; Daniel B. Klein, “Free Parking Versus Free Markets”, The Independent Review, vol. XI, n. 2 (2006), pp. 289-97.

76. O’Meara, op. cit. nota 3, p. 49; Donald C. Shoup, “Congress Okays Cash Out”, Access, 1998, pp. 2-8.

77. Libby Nelson, “Broadway’s Car-free Zones: This Space for Rent”, New York Times, 9 luglio 2009; “Parigi to Cut City Centre Traffic”, BBC News, 15 marzo 2005; J.H. Crawford, “Carfree Places”, www.carfree.com, visionato il 17 agosto 2007; vedi anche J.H. Crawford, Carfree Cities, International Books, Utrecht, Netherlands luglio 2000.

78. Yuri Kageyama, “Cars No Longer Coveted by Young”, Japan Times, 4 gennaio 2009; Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association, Inc., Motor Vehicle Statistics of Japan 2008 (Tokyo: 2008), p. 8; Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association, Inc., “Forecast for Vehicle Demand 2009”, www.jama-english.jp/statistics/forecast/2009/081218.html, 18 dicembre 2008; European Automobile Manufacturers’ Association, “Passenger Cars: European Market at –4.9% in MAy”, comunicato stampa (Bruxelles: 16 giugno 2009); Bill Heenan, Steel Recycling Institute, conversazione con J. Matthew Roney, Earth Policy Institute, 20 luglio 2009.

79. Kageyama, op. cit. nota 78.

80. City of New York, PlaNYC Progress Report 2009 (New York: Mayor’s Office of Long-Term Planning & Sustainability, 2009), pp. 3-4, 30, 35, 38; City of New York, Mayor’s Office of Operations, “PlaNYC/Sustainability Reports”, www.nyc.gov/html/ops/planyc/html/home/home.shtml, visionato 16 giugno 2009.

81. Kitson & Partners, “Babcock Ranch Florida – Embracing Nature”, www.babcockranchflorida.com/nature.asp, visionato il 16 giugno 2009; Michael Grunwald, “A Solar-Powered Solution to Florida Sprawl”, Time, 9 aprile 2009; Sydney Kitson, conversazione con l’autore, 14 maggio 2009.

82. Glover Park Group, “First Solar-Powered City to Fuel Clean Industry, Economic Recovery”, comunicato stampa (Washington, DC: 9 aprile 2009); Kitson & Partners, op. cit. nota 81.

83. Kevin Bullis, “A Zero-Emissions City in the Desert”, Technology Review (marzo/aprile 2009), pp. 56-63.

84. Ibid.

85. Adam Federman, “Roadkill: How NYC’s Congestion Pricing Plan Crashed”, Earth Island Journal, 2008, pp. 25-30; Robin Pogrebin, “Visions of Manhattan: For the City, 100-Year Makeovers”, New York Times, 4 novembre 2006.

86. Federman, op. cit. nota 85; Partnership for New York City, Growth or Gridlock? The Economic Case for Traffic Relief and Transit Improvement for a Greater New York (New York: dicembre 2006), pp. 2-4.