PIANO B 4.0 | Note capitolo 10

CAPITOLO 10. possiamo mobilitarci abbastanza velocemente?

1. Peter Goldmark, Environmental Defense Fund, e-mail all’autore, 28 giugno 2009.

2. Lester R. Brown, “Could Food Shortages Bring Down Civilization?” Scientific American, maggio 2009, pp. 50-57.

3. Mohammad Yunus, Karl Weber, Creating a World Without Poverty (New York: PublicAffairs, 2008), p. 105.

4. à˜ystein Dahle, conversazione con l’autore, State of the World Conference, Aspen, CO, 22 luglio 2001.

5. Norvegia, Costa Rica e Maldive da U.N. Environment Programme (UNEP), Climate Neutral Network, “Countries”, www.unep.org/climateneutral, visionato il 24 giugno 2009; Olivia Lang, “Maldives Vows to be First Carbon-neutral Nation”, Reuters, 15 marzo 2009.

6. UNEP, “UNEP Unveils the Climate Neutral Network to Catalyze a Transition to a Low Carbon World” comunicato stampa (Nairobi: Climate Neutral Network, 21 febbraio 2008).

7. Redefining Progress, “The Economists’ Statement on Climate Change”, www.rprogress.org/publications/1997/econstatement.htm, visionato il 26 giugno 2008.

8. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Sustaining State Programs for Tobacco Control: Data Highlights 2006 (Atlanta, GA: 2006).

9. Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids, “State Cigarette Excise Tax Rank and Ratings”, bollettino d’informazione (Washington, DC: 28 maggio 2009); Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids, “Raising Cigarette Taxes Reduces Smoking, Especially Among Kids (And the Cigarette Companies Know It)”, bollettino d’informazione (Washington, DC: 9 gennaio 2009); Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids, “Cigarette Tax Increases by State per Year 2000-2009”, bollettino d’informazione (Washington, DC: 28 maggio 2009).

10.Costi indiretti dei carburanti calcolati da International Center for Technology Assessment (ICTA), The Real Price of Gasoline, Report n. 3 (Washington, DC: 1998), p. 34, aggiornato su: ICTA, Gasoline Cost Externalities Associated with Global Climate Change: An Update to CTA’s Real Price of Gasoline Report (Washington, DC: settembre 2004), ICTA, Gasoline Cost Externalities: Security and Protection Services: An Update to CTA’s Real Price of Gasoline Report (Washington, DC: gennaio 2005), Terry Tamminen, Lives Per Gallon: The True Cost of Our Oil Addiction (Washington, DC: Island Press, 2006), p. 60, Bureau for Economic Analysis, “Table 3 – Price Indices for Gross Domestic Product and Gross Domestic Purchases”, GDP and Other Major Series, 1929-2007 (Washington, DC: agosto 2007); U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Information Administration (EIA), This Week in Petroleum (Washington, DC: vari numeri); EIA, “US Weekly Retail”, Retail Gasoline Historical Prices (Washington, DC: 15 giugno 2009).

11. American Petroleum Institute, State Gasoline Tax Report (Washington, DC: 1° aprile 2009); DOE, EIA, “Weekly (Monday) Retail Premium Gasoline Prices, Selected Countries”, www.eia.doe.gov/emeu, aggiornato al 16 giugno 2009; consumi di carburanti da International Energy Agency (IEA), in World Resources Institute, “Energy and Resources: Energy Consumption by Source: Oil and Petroleum Products (2005)”, EarthTrends www.earthtrends.wri.org, aggiornato al 2007.

12. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, “Cigarette Price Increase Follows Tobacco Pact”, Agricultural Outlook, gennaio/febbraio 1999.

13. Markus Knigge, Benjamin Gà¶rlach, Effects of Germany’s Ecological Tax Reforms on the Environment, Employment and Technological Innovation: Summary of the Final Report of the Project (Berlino: Ecologic Institute for International and European Environmental Policy, agosto 2005); Michael Renner, Sean Sweeney, Jill Kubit, Green Jobs: Towards Decent Work in a Sustainable, Low Carbon World (Nairobi: UNEP, 2008), p. 97.

14. Stima del trasferimento delle imposte in Svezia da Paul Ekins, Stefan Speck, “Environmental Tax Reform in Europe: Energy Tax Rates and Competitiveness”, in Nathalie J. Chalifour et al., Critical Issues in Environmental Taxation (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008), pp. 77-105; Ministry of Finance, Sweden, “Taxation and the Environment”, comunicato stampa (Stoccolma: 25 maggio 2005); dimensione delle famiglie da Target Group Index, “Household Size”, Global TGI Barometer (Miami: 2005) e da U.N. Population Division, World Population Prospects: The 2008 Revision Population Database, esa.un.org/unpp, aggiornato all’11 marzo 2009; Andrew Hoerner, Benoà®t Bosquet, Environmental Tax Reform: The European Experience (Washington, DC: Center for a Sustainable Economy, 2001); European Environment Agency, Environmental Taxes: Recent Developments in Tools for Integration, Environmental Issues Series No. 18 (Copenaghen: 2000); sondaggio da David Malin Roodman, The Natural Wealth of Nations (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1998), p. 243.

15. Redefining Progress, op. cit. nota 7; N. Gregory Mankiw, “Gas Tax Now!” Fortune, 24 maggio 1999, pp. 60-64.

16. Confederation of European Waste-to-Energy Plants, Landfill Taxes and Bans (Bruxelles: aprile 2007); Tom Miles, “London Drivers to Pay UK’s First Congestion Tax”, Reuters, 28 febbraio 2002; Energy Council, Energy Efficiency Policies and Indicators (Londra: 2001), Annex 1; “DONG Satisfied with Electric Car Tax Relief”, Copenhagen Post, 22 maggio 2009; Nick Kurczewski, “Scariest Place in the World to Buy a Car”, New York Times Wheels Blog, 7 maggio 2008; Office of the Mayor, “Car Plate Prices Climb” (Shanghai: 21 giugno 2009).

17. South Australian Fisheries Management Series, Management Plan for the South Australian Southern Zone Rock Lobster Fishery (Adelaide, South Australia: 2007); South Australian Research and Development Institute, Southern Zone Rock Lobster (Jasus edwardsii) Fishery, assessment report to PIRSA (Adelaide, South Australia: 2008).

18. Edwin Clark, lettera all’autore, 25 luglio 2001.

19. André de Moor, Peter Calamai, Subsidizing Unsustainable Development (San José, Costa Rica: Earth Council, 1997).

20. World Bank, World Development Report 2003 (New York: Oxford University Press, 2003), pp. 30, 142; IEA, World Energy Outlook 2006 (Parigi: 2006), p. 279.

21. Belgio, Francia e Giappone da Seth Dunn, “King Coal’s Weakening Grip on Power”, World Watch, settembre/ottobre 1999, pp. 10-19; Germania da UNEP, Reforming Energy Subsides: Opportunities to Contribute to the Climate Change Agenda (Nairobi: 2008), e da DOE, EIA, International Energy Annual 2006 (Washington, DC: ottobre 2008), tabella 1.4; tagli ai sussidi in Cina, Indonesia e Nigeria da GTZ Transport Policy Advisory Service, International Fuel Prices 2007 (Eschborn, Germania: aprile 2007), p. 3.

22. John Whitelegg, Spencer Fitz-Gibbon, Aviation’s Economic Downside, 3rd ed. (Londra: Green Party of England & Wales, 2003); conversione del dollaro basata sul cambio dell’agosto 2007 International Monetary Fund, “Representative Exchange Rates for Selected Currencies in agosto 2007”, Exchange Rate Archives by Month, www.imf.org/ external, visionato il 16 agosto 2007; U.N. Population Division, op. cit. nota 14.

23. Doug Koplow, Subsidies in the U.S. Energy Sector: Magnitude, Causes, and Options for Reform (Cambridge, MA: Earth Track, novembre 2006); Doug Koplow, Earth Track, e-mail a Jessie Robbins, Earth Policy Institute, 2 luglio 2009.

24. I sussidi alla pesca includono i sussidi “perversi” e i sussidi per i carburanti come stimato da Fisheries Center, Catching More Bait: A Bottom-Up Re-Estimation of Global Fisheries Subsidies (2nd Version) (Vancouver, BC: University of British Columbia, 2006), p. 21.

25. Coal Moratorium NOW!, “Progress Towards a Coal Moratorium: 59 Coal Plants Cancelled or Shelved in 2007”, comunicato stampa (San Francisco: 17 gennaio 2008); Mark Clayton, “Rising Construction Costs and Potential Climate Legislation in Congress Halt Least 18 Proposed Power Plants in the Past Nine Months”, Christian Science Monitor, 25 ottobre 2007; Janet Larsen, “Coal Takes Heavy Human Toll”, Eco-Economy Update (Washington, DC: Earth Policy Institute, 24 agosto 2004).

26. Sierra Club, “Stopping the Coal Rush”, online database, visitato il 23 luglio 2009, www.sierraclub.org/environmentallaw/coal/plantlist.asp; Kathleen Krust, Sierra Club, conversazione con Jessie Robbins, Earth Policy Institute, 23 luglio 2009.

27. Opinion Research Corporation, A Post Fossil-Fuel America: Are Americans Ready to Make the Shift? (Princeton, NJ: ottobre 2007).

28. Andrew Ross Sorkin, “A Buyout Deal That Has Many Shades of Green”, New York Times, 26 febbraio 2007; “Texas Decision Could Double Wind Power Capacity in the U.S.”, Renewable Energy Access, 4 ottobre 2007.

29. Timothy Gardner, “Florida Gov. Might Allow New Coal Power Plants”, Reuters, 4 ottobre 2007; Buck Parker, Earthjustice, lettera all’autore, ottobre 2007; Coal Moratorium NOW! op. cit. nota 25.

30. Jim Jelter, “Coal Stocks Tumble on Citigroup Downgrade”, Market-Watch, 18 luglio 2007; Steve James, “Coal Shares Fall After Merrill Downgrade”, Reuters, 3 gennaio 2008; Citigroup, “Leading Wall Street Banks Establish the Carbon Principles”, comunicato stampa (New York: 4 febbraio 2008); Jeffrey Ball, “Wall Street Shows Skepticism Over Coal”, Wall Street Journal, 4 febbraio 2008; Jeffrey Ball, “Bank of America Puts a Price on Carbon”, Wall Street Journal, 13 febbraio 2008.

31. Martin Griffith, “Reid Fights New Coal-Fired Plants”, (Salt Lake City) Deseret News, 26 agosto 2007; Nicholas D. Kristof, “The Big Melt”, New York Times, 16 agosto 2007; Governor Jennifer M. Granholm, “Priorities for Michigan’s Economic Future: Jobs, Education and Protecting Families”, State of the State Address, 3 febbraio 2009; State of Washington 60th Legislature, Climate Change – Mitigating Impacts, Engrossed Substitute Senate Bill 6001, Chapter 307, Laws of 2007, 22 luglio 2007; Carla Vigue, “Governor Says No to Coal for State Heating Plants in Madison”, comunicato stampa (Madison, WI: Office of the Governor, 1° agosto 2008); Audrey Chang, “California Takes on Power Plant Emissions: SB 1368 Sets Groundbreaking Greenhouse Gas Performance Standard”, bollettino d’informazione (New York: Natural Resources Defense Council, agosto 2007); Gardner, op. cit. nota 29.

32. Granholm, op. cit. nota 31.

33. Kristen Lombardi, Coal Ash: The Hidden Story: How Industry and the EPA Failed to Stop a Growing Environmental Disaster (Washington, DC: Center for Public Integrity, 19 febbraio 2009).

34. Ibid.; “Enviros Demand Locations of 44 ‘High Hazard’ Coal Ash Sites”, Environmental News Service, 19 giugno 2009.

35. James Hansen, “Why We Can’t Wait”, The Nation, 7 maggio 2007; Noelle Straub, Peter Behr, “Energy Regulatory Chief Says New Coal, Nuclear Plants maggio Be Unnecessary”, Greenwire, 22 aprile 2009.

36. Supreme Court of the United States, Massachusetts et al. v. Environmental Protection Agency et al., n. 05-1120, 549 U.S. 497, deciso il 2 aprile 2007, Washington, DC; Environmental Appeals Board, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, “In Re: Deseret Power Electric Cooperative, PSD Permit No. PSD-OU-0002-04.00” (Washington, DC: 13 novembre 2008); David Biello, “EPA Ruling Halts All New Coal-Fired Power Plants”, Scientific American, 14 novembre 2008; Deborah Zabarenko, “EPA Finds Greenhouse Gases Endanger Health”, Reuters, 23 marzo 2009.

37. Sierra Club, “Beyond Coal”, www.sierraclub.org/coal, visionato il 25 giugno 2009.

38. Mathias Bell, Rocky Mountain Institute, e-mail a Jessie Robbins, Earth Policy Institute, 30 giugno 2009; Natalie Mims, Mathias Bell, Stephen Doig, Assessing the Electric Productivity Gap and the U.S. Efficiency Opportunity (Snowmass, CO: Rocky Mountain Institute, gennaio 2009).

39. Erik Shuster, Tracking New Coal-Fired Power Plants (Pittsburgh, PA: DOE, National Energy Technology Laboratory, gennaio 2009); Julie Clendenin, Shawna Seldon, “Wind Energy Grows by Record 8,300 MW in 2008”, comunicato stampa (Washington, DC: American Wind Energy Association (AWEA), 27 gennaio 2009); AWEA, U.S. Wind Energy Projects, www.awea.org/projects, aggiornato il 31 dicembre 2008.

40. Henry Manczyk, Michael D. Leach, “Combined Heat and Power Generation and District Heating in Denmark: History, Goals, and Technology”, www.energy.rochester.edu/dk/manczyk/denmark.pdf, visionato il 13 febbraio 2008; “New Zealand Issues Ten-Year Ban on New Thermal Power Plants”, Power Engineering, 11 ottobre 2007; Global Wind Energy Council, Global Wind 2008 Report (Bruxelles: 2009); Jad Mouawad, “Chinese Clean Coal Will Be Critical, a Report Says”, Green Inc. Nytimes.com, 20 aprile 2009.

41. Tabella 10.1 compilata con le seguenti fonti: sostituzione dei combustibili fossili con energie rinnovabili per riscaldamento ed elettricità  da IEA, World Energy Outlook 2008 (Parigi: 2008), p. 507, riduzione dell’uso di carbone e petrolio nell’industria da IEA, Tracking Industrial Energy Efficiency and CO2 Emissions (Parigi: 2007), abolizione della deforestazione e nuove piantagioni di alberi da Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Climate Change 2007: Mitigation of Climate Change. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 2007), pp. 543, 559, gestione dei suoli al fine del sequestro basata su stime prudenziali da Rattan Lal, “Soil Carbon Sequestration Impacts on Global Climate Change and Food Security”, Science, vol. 304 (11 giugno 2004), pp. 1.623-27.

42. IEA, World Energy Outlook 2008, op. cit. nota 41, p. 507.

43. R.A. Houghton, “Carbon Flux to the Atmosphere from Land-Use Changes: 1850-2005”, in Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC), TRENDS: A Compendium of Data on Global Change (Oak Ridge, TN: Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), 2008); sequestro del carbonio basato su IPCC, op. cit. nota 41.

44. Lal, op. cit. nota 41.

45. Concentrazioni di CO2 calcolate usando i dati sul consumo di combustibili fossili da Tom Boden, Gregg Marland, “Global CO2 Emissions from Fossil-Fuel Burning, Cement Manufacture, and Gas Flaring: 1751-2006″ e “Preliminary 2006-07 Global & National Estimates by Extrapolation”, entrambi in CDIAC, Fossil Fuel CO2 Emissions (Oak Ridge, TN: ORNL, 2009), e i dati sui cambi di destinazione d’uso dei suoli da Houghton, op. cit. nota 43, con curva di decadimento da J. Hansen et al., “Dangerous Human-Made Interference with Climate: A GISS ModelE Study”, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol. 7 (2007), pp. 2.287-312.

46. Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety, Renewable Energy-Employment Effects: Impact of the Expansion of Renewable Energy on the German Labor Market (Berlino: giugno 2006); “German Plan to Close Coal Mines”, BBC News, 29 gennaio 2007; Michael Levitin, “Germany Says Auf Wiedersehen to Nuclear Power, Guten Tag to Renewables”, Grist, 12 agosto 2005.

47. Tim Weiner, Legacy of Ashes: The History of the CIA (New York: Doubleday, 2009), p. 429.

48. Surgeon General’s Advisory Committee on Smoking and Health, Smoking and Health (Washington, DC: Office of the Surgeon General, 1964).

49. Consumo di sigarette da U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), Production, Supply and Distribution, www.fas.usda.gov/psdonline, aggiornato al 31 agosto 2006, e da Tom Capehart, Tobacco Outlook (Washington, DC: USDA, Economic Research Service (ERS), 24 aprile 2007); American Cancer Society, “Guide to Quitting Smoking: Tobacco and Cancer”, www.cancer.org, aggiornato al 21 maggio 2009.

50. Duff Wilson, “Congress Passes Measure on Tobacco Regulation”, New York Times, 13 giugno 2009; USDA, ERS, “Cigarette Price Increase Follows Tobacco Pact”, Agricultural Outlook, gennaio/febbraio 1999.

51. DOE, EIA, Annual Energy Outlook 2009 with Projections for 2030 (Washington, DC: marzo 2009); BP, BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2009 (Londra: British Petroleum, giugno 2009); Sharon Silke Carty, “This Year’s Auto Sales Forecast Falls to 10 Million”, USA Today, 22 maggio 2009; auto demolite da R.L. Polk & Co., “U.S. Vehicle Median Age Increased in 2008, According to Polk”, comunicato stampa (Southfield, MI: 3 marzo 2009).

52. U.S. Department of Transportation, Summary of Fuel Economy Performance (Washington, DC: 30 marzo 2009).

53. DOE, EIA, Annual Energy Outlook 2007 with Projections for 2030 (Washington, DC:, febbraio 2006); DOE, op. cit. nota 51.

54. Per una storia della mobilitazione, si veda Francis Walton, Miracle of World War II: How American Industry Made Victory Possible (New York: Macmillan, 1956).

55. Franklin Roosevelt, “State of the Union Address”, 6 gennaio 1942, www.ibiblio.org/pha/7-2-188/188-35.html.

56. Harold G. Vatter, The US Economy in World War II (New York: Columbia University Press, 1985), p. 13; Alan L. Gropman, Mobilizing U.S. Industry in World War II (Washington, DC: National Defense University Press, agosto 1996).

57. Doris Kearns Goodwin, No Ordinary Time – Franklin and Eleanor Roosevelt: The Home Front in World War II (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1994), p. 316; “Point Rationing Comes of Age”, Business Week, 19 febbraio 1944.

58. “War Production – The Job ‘That Couldn’t Be Done'”, Business Week, 5 maggio 1945; Donald M. Nelsen, Arsenal of Democracy: The Story of American War Production (New York: Harcourt, Brace and Co., 1946), p. 243.

59. Goodwin, op. cit. nota 57, p. 316.

60. Grey citato in Walton, op. cit. nota 54.

61. Jeffrey Sachs, “One Tenth of 1 Percent to Make the World Safer”, Washington Post, 21 novembre 2001.

62. Educazione primaria universale da U.K. Treasury, From Commitment to Action: Education (Londra: Department for International Development, settembre 2005); istruzione di base per adulti da una stima dell’autore; assistenza sanitaria di base da Jeffrey D. Sachs and the Commission on Macroeconomics and Health, Macroeconomics and Health: Investing in Health for Economic Development (Ginevra: World Health Organization, 2001); salute riproduttiva e pianificazione familiare da J. Joseph Speidel et al., Family Planning and Reproductive Health: The Link to Environmental Preservation (San Francisco: Bixby Center for Reproductive Health and Research Policy, University of California, 2007), p. 10, e da J. Joseph Speidel, conversazione con J. Matthew Roney, Earth Policy Institute, 16 ottobre 2007.

63. In tabella 10.2, colmare il condom gap da Population Action International, “Why Condoms Count in the Era of HIV/AIDS”, bollettino d’informazione (Washington, DC: 2008); produzione e diffusione dei preservativi da United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), Donor Support for Contraceptives and Condoms for STI/HIV Prevention 2007 (New York: 2008); programmi di refezione scolastica da George McGovern, “Yes We CAN Feed the World’s Hungry”, Parade, 16 dicembre 2001; assistenza ai bambini prescolari e alle donne incinte è una stima dell’autore sull’estensione del U.S.’s Women, Infants, and Children program, based on United Nations, World Population Prospects: The 2004 Revision (New York: 2005); UNFPA, The State of World Population 2004 (New York: 2004), p. 39.

64. In tabella 10.2, il budget necessario per risanare gli ecosistemi terrestri è stato compilato su: piantare alberi per ridurre le inondazioni e conservare il suolo da Lester R. Brown, Edward C. Wolf, “Reclaiming the Future”, in Lester R. Brown et al., State of the World 1988 (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1988), p. 174, con dati da U.N. Food and Agriculture Organization, Fuelwood Supplies in the Developing Countries, Forestry Paper 42 (Roma: 1983); piantare alberi per sequestrare la CO2 da IPCC, op. cit. nota 41, pp. 543, 559; recuperare le zone a pascolo da UNEP, Status of Desertification and Implementation of the United Nations Plan of Action to Combat Desertification (Nairobi: 1991), pp. 73-92; recuperare le riserve ittiche da Andrew Balmford et al., “The Worldwide Costs of Marine Protected Areas”, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol. 101, n. 26 (29 giugno 2004), pp. 9.694-97; proteggere la diversità  biologica da World Parks Congress, Recommendations of the Vth IUCN World Parks Congress (Durban, South Africa: 2003), pp. 17-19, e da World Parks Congress, “The Durban Accord”, www.iucn.org/themes/wcpa, visionato il 19 ottobre 2007; stabilizzare i livelli della falda idrica dauna stima dell’autore.

65. Tabella 10.3 da Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI), Military Expenditure Database, www.sipri.org, aggiornato 2009.

66. SIPRI, op. cit. nota 65.

67. Amy Belasco, The Cost of Iraq, Afghanistan and Other Global War on Terror Operations Since 9/11 (Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, 15 maggio 2009); Linda Bilmes, Joseph Stiglitz, The Economic Costs of the Iraq War: An Appraisal Three Years After the Beginning of the Conflict (Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research, febbraio 2006); Linda Bilmes, Joseph Stiglitz, “The $10 Trillion Hangover”, Harper’s, gennaio 2009.

68. Jared Diamond, Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed, Penguin Group, New York 2005; Ronald Wright, A Short History of Progress, Carroll and Graf Publishers, New York 2005; Joseph A. Tainter, The Collapse of Complex Societies, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK 1988).

69. SIPRI, op. cit. nota 65.

70. The Institute for Intercultural Studies, www.interculturalstudies.org, visionato l’8 luglio 2009.

71. Richard Register, e-mail all’autore, 16 ottobre 2007.

72. Gidon Eshel, Pamela A. Martin, “Diet, Energy, and Global Warming”, Earth Interactions, vol. 10, n. 9 (2006).