PIANO B 4.0 | Note capitolo 3

CAPITOLO 3. i cambiamenti climatici e la transizione energetica


1. J. Hansen, NASA’s Goddard Institute for Space Studies, “Global Temperature Anomalies in 0.1 C”, data.giss.nasa.gov/gistemp/tabledata/ GLB.Ts.txt, aggiornato a giugno 2009; Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge UK 2007, pp. 13, 15.

2. IPCC, op. cit. nota 1, pp. 5-7; U.N. Environment Programme (UNEP), Global Outlook for Ice and Snow (Nairobi: 2007), p. 103; W.T. Pfeffer, J.T. Harper, S. O’Neel, “Kinematic Constraints on Glacier Contributions to 21st-Century Sea-Level Rise”, Science, vol. 321, 5 settembre 2008, pp. 1340-43; “Sea Levels Will Rise 1.5 Metres by 2100”, NewScientist.com, 16 aprile 2008; Stefan Rahmstorf, “A Semi-Empirical Approach to Projecting Future Sea-level Rise”, Science, vol. 315, 19 gennaio 2007, pp. 368-70.

3. IPCC, Climate Change 2007: Impact, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge UK 2007, pp. 241-45.

4. International Energy Agency (IEA), Oil Market Report (Parigi: agosto 2001), include il petrolio e il gas naturale liquido; serie storiche da U.S. Department of Defense, Twentieth Century Petroleum Statistics (Washington, DC: 1945), citato in Christopher Flavin, Seth Dunn, “Reinventing the Energy System”, in Lester R. Brown, Christopher Flavin, Hilary French, State of the World 1999, W.W. Norton & Company, New York 1999, p. 25; carbone da Seth Dunn, “Coal Use Continues Rebound”, in Lester R. Brown et al., Vital Signs 1998, W.W. Norton & Company, New York 1998, pp. 52-53.

5. IEA, Oil Market Report (Parigi: giugno 2009); Colin J. Campbell, e-mail a Jignasha Rana, Earth Policy Institute, 18 giugno 2009.

6. IEA, World Energy Outlook 2008 (Parigi: 2008), p. 507.

7. Hansen, op. cit. nota 1.

8. IPCC, op. cit. nota 1, pp. 27, 135, 141, 542.

9. Concentrazione atmosferica nel 2008 da Pieter Tans, “Trends in Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide – Mauna Loa”, NOAA/ESRL, www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/ ccgg/trends, visionato il 7 aprile 2009; R.A. Houghton, “Carbon Flux to the Atmosphere from Land-Use Changes: 1850-2005”, in Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, TRENDS: A Compendium of Data on Global Change (Oak Ridge, TN: Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 2008); Josep G. Canadell et al., “Contributions to Accelerating Atmospheric CO2 Growth from Economic Activity, Carbon Intensity, and Efficiency of Natural Sinks”, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol. 104, n. 47 (20 novembre 2007), pp. 18.866-70.

10. Sarah Simpson, “The Arctic Thaw Could Make Global Warming Worse”, Scientific American: Earth 3.0, giugno 2009; Global Carbon Project, “Supersize Deposits of Frozen Carbon Threat to Climate Change”, comunicato stampa (Canberra, Australia: 1° luglio 2009).

11. Veerabhadran Ramanathan et al., Atmospheric Brown Clouds: Regional Assessment Report with Focus on Asia (Nairobi: UNEP, 2008), pp. 2, 10.

12. Ibid., pp. 393-96; Yun Qian et al., “Effects of Soot-Induced Snow Albedo Change on Snowpack and Hydrological Cycle in Western United States Based on Weather Research and Forecasting Chemistry and Regional Climate Simulations”, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 114, numero D3 (14 febbraio 2009); Jane Qiu, “The Third Pole”, Nature, vol. 454 (24 luglio 2008, pp. 393-96); Frances C. Moore, “Climate Change and Air Pollution: Exploring the Synergies and Potential for Mitigation in Industrializing Countries”, Sustainability, vol. 1, n. 1 (24 marzo 2009), pp. 43-54.

13. Elisabeth Rosenthal, “Third-World Soot Stove is Target in Climate Fight”, New York Times, 16 aprile 2009.

14. IPCC, op. cit. nota 1, pp. 13, 15; Thomas R. Karl, Jerry M. Melillo, Thomas C. Peterson, eds., Global Climate Change Impacts in the United States, Cambridge University Press, New York 2009), pp. 22-23.

15. A.P. Sokolov et al., “Probabilistic Forecast for 21st Century Climate Based on Uncertainties in Emissions (Without Policy) and Climate Parameters”, Journal of Climate, in stampa.

16. International Alliance of Research Universities, Climate Change: Global Risks, Challenges & Decisions, Synthesis Report da International Scientific Congress (Copenaghen: University of Copenaghen, 2009), pp. 18-19.

17. “Awful Weather We’re Having”, The Economist, 2 ottobre 2004; Richard Milne, “Hurricanes Cost Munich Re Reinsurance”, Financial Times, 6 novembre 2004.

18. U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), Production, Supply and Distribution, www.fas.usda.gov/psdonline, aggiornato all’11 giugno 2007; Janet Larsen, “Record Heat Wave in Europe Takes 35,000 Lives”, Eco-Economy Update (Washington, DC: Earth Policy Institute, 9 ottobre 2003); USDA, National Agricultural Statistics Service, “Crop Production” (Washington, DC: 12 agosto 2005).

19. Janet Larsen, “Setting the Record Straight: More than 52,000 Europeans Died from Heat in Summer 2003”, Eco-Economy Update (Washington, DC: Earth Policy Institute, 26 luglio 2006); National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States, The 9/11 Commission Report (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2004).

20. National Center for Atmospheric Research and UCAR Office of Programs, “Drought’s Growing Reach: NCAR Study Points to Global Warming as Key Factor”, comunicato stampa (Boulder, CO: 10 gennaio 2005); Aiguo Dai, Kevin E. Trenberth, Taotao Qian, “A Global Dataset of Palmer Drought Severity Index for 1870-2002: Relationship with Soil Moisture and Effects of Surface Warming”, Journal of Hydrometeorology, vol. 5 (dicembre 2004), pp. 1.117-30.

21. Susan Solomon et al., “Irreversible Climate Change Due to Carbon Dioxide Emissions”, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol. 106, n. 6 (10 febbraio 2009), pp. 1.704-09.

22. Donald McKenzie et al., “Climatic Change, Wildfire, and Conservation”, Conservation Biology, vol. 18, n. 4 (agosto 2004), pp. 890-902.

23. Camille Parmesan, Hector Galbraith, Observed Impacts of Global Climate Change in the U.S. (Arlington, VA: Pew Center on Global Climate Change, 2004); DeNeen L. Brown, “Signs of Thaw in a Desert of Snow”, Washington Post, 28 maggio 2002.

24. Patty Glick, Fish Out of Water: A Guide to Global Warming and Pacific Northwest Rivers (Seattle, WA: National Wildlife Federation, marzo 2005); Elizabeth Gillespie, “Global Warming maggio Be Making Rivers Too Hot: Cold-Water Fish Will Struggle, Report Says”, Seattle Post-Intelligencer, 24 marzo 2005.

25. Douglas B. Inkley et al., Global Climate Change and Wildlife in North America (Bethesda, MD: The Wildlife Society, dicembre 2004); J.R. Pegg, “Global Warming Disrupting North American Wildlife”, Environment News Service, 16 dicembre 2004.

26. UNEP, op. cit. nota 2; Gordon McGranahan et al., “The Rising Tide: Assessing the Risks of Climate Change and Human Settlements in Low Elevation Coastal Zones”, Environment and Urbanization, vol. 18, n. 1 (aprile 2007), pp. 17-37.

27. Arctic Climate Impact Assessment (ACIA), Impacts of a Warming Arctic, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge UK 2004); “Rapid Arctic Warming Brings Sea Level Rise, Extinctions”, Environment News Service, 8 novembre 2004.

28. J.R. Pegg, “The Earth is Melting, Arctic Native Leader Warns”, Environment News Service, 16 settembre 2004; ACIA, op. cit. nota 27, p. 8.

29. ACIA, op. cit. nota 27; Steven C. Amstrup, Bruce G. Marcot, David C. Douglas, Forecasting the Range-wide Status of Polar Bears at Selected Times in the 21st Century (Reston, VA: U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), 2007), p. 2.

30. Julienne Stroeve et al., “Arctic Sea Ice Decline: Faster than Forecast”, Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 34 (maggio 2007); National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC), “Arctic Sea Ice Shatters All Previous Record Lows”, comunicato stampa (Boulder, CO: 1° ottobre 2007); R. Kwok et al., “Thinning and Volume Loss of the Arctic Ocean Sea Ice Cover: 2003-2008”, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 114 (7 luglio 2009).

31. David Adam, “Meltdown Fear as Arctic Ice Cover Falls to Record Winter Low”, Guardian (Londra), 15 maggio 2006; Kevin Rollason, “Arctic to See First Ice-Free Summer in 2015”, Canwest News Service (Canada), 6 dicembre 2008; Vincent citato in David Ljunggren, “Arctic Summer Ice Could Vanish by 2013: Expert”, Reuters, 5 marzo 2009; Stroeve citato in “Arctic Ice Retreating 30 Years Ahead of Projections”, Environment News Service, 30 aprile 2007.

32. NSIDC, “Processes: Thermodynamics: Albedo”, nsidc.org/ seaice/processes/albedo.html, visionato il 26 luglio 2007.

33. UNEP, op. cit. nota 2.

34. J.L. Chen, C. R. Wilson, B.D. Tapley, “Satellite Gravity Measurements Confirm Accelerated Melting of Greenland Ice Sheet”, Science, vol. 313 (29 settembre 2006), pp. 1.958-60; Isabella Velicogna, John Wahr, “Acceleration of Greenland Ice Mass Loss in Spring 2004”, Nature, vol. 443 (21 settembre 2006), pp. 329-31; S.B. Luthke et al., “Recent Greenland Ice Mass Loss from Drainage System from Satellite Gravity Observations”, Science, vol. 314 (24 novembre 2006), pp. 1.286-89; “Gravity Measurements Confirm Greenland’s Glaciers Precipitous Meltdown”, Scientific American, 19 ottobre 2006.

35. Paul Brown, “Melting Ice Cap Triggering Earthquakes”, Guardian (Londra), 8 settembre 2007; Robert W. Corell, conversazione con Jignasha Rana, Earth Policy Institute, 15 luglio 2009.

36. Ohio State University, “Greenland’s Glaciers Losing Ice Faster This Year than Last Year, Which Was Record-Setting Itself”, (Columbus, OH: 13 dicembre 2008).

37. H. Jay Zwally et al., “Surface Melt-Induced Acceleration of Greenland Ice-Sheet Flow”, Science, vol. 297 (12 luglio 2002), pp. 218-22.

38. U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Information Administration (EIA), “Antarctica: Fact Sheet”, www.eia.doe.gov, settembre 2000.

39. “Giant Antarctic Ice Shelves Shatter and Break Away”, Environment News Service, 19 marzo 2002; Vaughan citato in Andrew Revkin, “Large Ice Shelf in Antarctica Disintegrates at Great Speed”, New York Times, 20 marzo 2002.

40. “Breakaway Bergs Disrupt Antarctic Ecosystem”, Environment News Service, 9 maggio 2002; “Giant Antarctic Ice Shelves Shatter and Break Away”, op. cit. nota 39.

41. NSIDC, “Larsen B Ice Shelf Collapses in Antarctica”, nsidc.org/news/press/larsen_B/2002.html, 21 marzo 2002; “Breakaway Bergs Disrupt Antarctic Ecosystem”, op. cit. nota 40; “Giant Antarctic Ice Shelves Shatter and Break Away”, op. cit. nota 39.

42. University of Colorado at Boulder, “NASA, CU-Boulder Study Shows Vast Regions of West Antarctica Melted in Recent Past”, comunicato stampa (Boulder: 15 maggio 2007).

43. Peter Brown, “NASA Satellites Watch Polar Ice Shelf Break into Crushed Ice”, Scientific American, luglio 2008.

44. NASA Earth Observatory, “Wilkins Ice Bridge Collapse”, earth observatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/view.php?id=37806, postato l’8 aprile 2009.

45. Michael Byrnes, “New Antarctic Iceberg Split No Threat”, Reuters, 20 maggio 2002.

46. Robin McKie, “Scientists to Issue Stark Warning Over Dramatic New Sea Level Figures”, Guardian (Londra), 8 marzo 2009; IPCC, op. cit. nota 1, p. 13; Pfeffer, Harper, O’Neel, op. cit. nota 2; USGS, Synthesis and Assessment Product 3.4: Abrupt Climate Change (Washington, DC: 2009), p. 9.

47. McGranahan et al., op. cit. nota 26.

48. Ibid.

49. World Glacier Monitoring Service, Università  di Zurigo, “Glacier Mass Balance Data 2006 and 2007”, www.geo.uzh.ch/wgms/mbb/ mbb10/sum07.html, aggiornato al 30 gennaio 2009.

50. Lester R. Brown, “Melting Mountain Glaciers Will Shrink Grain Harvests in China and India”, Plan B Update (Washington, DC: Earth Policy Institute, 20 marzo 2008).

51. USDA, Production, Supply and Distribution, www.fas.usda.gov/psdonline, aggiornato al 12 maggio 2009.

52. IPCC, op. cit. nota 3, pp. 493-94; Emily Wax, “A Sacred River Endangered by Global Warming”, Washington Post, 17 giugno 2007.

53. Clifford Coonan, “China’s Water Supply Could be Cut Off as Tibet’s Glaciers Melt”, The Independent (Londra), 31 maggio 2007; UNEP, op. cit. nota 2, p. 131; irrigazione del riso da “Yangtze River-Agriculture”, Encyclopedia Britannica, online, visionato il 25 luglio 2007.

54. Qiu, op. cit. nota 12.

55. UNEP, op. cit. nota 2, p. 131; Mehrdad Khalili, “The Climate of Iran: North, South, Kavir (Desert), Mountains”, San’ate Hamlo Naql, marzo 1997, pp. 48-53.

56. Lonnie Thompson, “Disappearing Glaciers Evidence of a Rapidly Changing Earth”, American Association for the Advancement of Science Annual Meeting, San Francisco, febbraio 2001; Lonnie Thompson, “Receding Glaciers Erase Records of Climate History”, Science News, 14 febbraio 2009; “The Peak of Mt Kilimanjaro As It Has Not Been Seen for 11,000 Years”, Guardian (Londra), 14 marzo 2005; Bancy Wangui, “Crisis Looms as Rivers Around Mt. Kenya Dry Up”, East Africa Standard, 1° luglio 2007.

57. Eric Hansen, “Hot Peaks”, OnEarth, 2002, p. 8.

58. Leslie Josephus, “Global Warming Threatens Double-Trouble for Peru: Shrinking Glaciers and a Water Shortage”, Associated Press, 12 febbraio 2007; Citation World Atlas (Union, NJ: Hammond World Atlas Corporation, 2004); Thompson, “Receding Glaciers”, op. cit. nota 56.

59. Josephus, op. cit. nota 58; U.N. Population Division, World Population Prospects: The 2008 Revision Population Database, esa.un.org/unpp, aggiornato all’11 marzo 2009.

60. U.N. Population Division, Urban Agglomerations 2007 Wall Chart, www.un.org/esa/population, aggiornato giugno 2008; James Painter, “Peru’s Alarming Water Truth”, BBC News, 12 marzo 2007.

61. Giles Tremlett, “Climate Change Lays Waste to Spain’s Glaciers”, Guardian (Londra), 23 febbraio 2009.

62. Anne Minard, “No More Glaciers in Glacier National Park by 2020?”, National Geographic News, 2 marzo 2009.

63. Michael Kiparsky, Peter Gleick, Climate Change and California Water Resources: A Survey and Summary of the Literature (Oakland, CA: Pacific Institute, 2003); Timothy Cavagnaro et al., Climate Change: Challenges and Solutions for California Agricultural Landscapes (Sacramento, CA: California Climate Change Center, 2006).

64. Michael J. Scott et al., “Climate Change and Adaptation in Irrigated Agriculture – A Case Study of the Yakima River”, in UCOWR/NIWR Conference, Water Allocation: Economics and the Environment (Carbondale, IL: Universities Council on Water Resources, 2004); Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, “Global Warming to Squeeze Western Mountains Dry by 2050”, comunicato stampa (Richland, WA: 16 febbraio 2004).

65. John E. Sheehy, International Rice Research Institute, e-mail a Janet Larsen, Earth Policy Institute, 1° ottobre 2002; Pedro Sanchez, “The Climate Change-Soil Fertility-Food Security Nexus”, discorso, Sustainable Food Security for All by 2020, Bonn, Germania, 4-6 settembre 2002.

66. K.S. Kavi Kumar, Jyoti Parikh, “Socio-Economic Impacts of Climate Change on Indian Agriculture”, International Review for Environmental Strategies, vol. 2, n. 2 (2001), pp. 277-93; U.N. Population Division, op. cit. nota 59.

67. Mohan K. Wali et al., “Assessing Terrestrial Ecosystem Sustainability”, Nature & Resources, ottobre-dicembre 1999, pp. 21-33.

68. Shaobing Peng et al., “Rice Yields Decline with Higher Night Temperature from Global Warming”, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 6 luglio 2004, pp. 9.971-75; Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, “Warmer Evening Temperatures Lower Rice Yields”, comunicato stampa (Washington, DC: 29 giugno 2004).

69. Sheehy, op. cit. nota 65; Sanchez, op. cit. nota 65.

70. Tim P. Barnett et al., “Human-Induced Changes in the Hydrology of the Western United States”, Science, vol. 319 (22 febbraio 2008); T. M. Shanahan et al., “Atlantic Forcing of Persistent Drought in West Africa”, Science, vol. 324 (17 aprile 2009); Marshall B. Burke, David B. Lobell, Luigi Guarino, “Shifts in African Crop Climates by 2050, and the Implications for Crop Improvement and Genetic Resources Conservation”, Global Environmental Change, in stampa.

71. U.N. Population Division, op. cit. nota 59; Burke, Lobell, Guarino, op. cit. nota 70; Marlowe Hood, “Warming maggio Outstrip Africa’s Ability to Feed Itself: Study”, Agence France-Presse, 17 giugno 2009.

72. IEA, op. cit. nota 6, pp. 221, 225; DOE, EIA, “How Dependent Are We on Foreign Oil?”, tonto.eia.doe.gov/energy_in_brief/foreign_oil_ dependence.cfm, aggiornato al 23 aprile 2009; U.S. Bureau of the Census, “Most of Us Still Drive to Work Alone – Public Transportation Commuters Concentrated in a Handful of Large Cities”, comunicato stampa (Washington, DC: 13 giugno 2007); Peter Whoriskey, “GM to Build Small Car in U.S.”, Washington Post, 29 maggio 2009.

73. Ayesha Rascoe, “U.S. Oil Demand in 2008 Hit a 10-year Low: Government”, Reuters, 27 febbraio 2009; DOE, EIA, Short-Term Energy Outlook (Washington, DC: 7 luglio 2009), pp. 22; Ayesha Rascoe, “U.S. Public Transit 2008 Ridership Highest in 52 years”, Reuters, 9 marzo 2009.

74. Campbell, op. cit. nota 5; Michael T. Klare, “Entering the Tough Oil Era”, TomDispatch.com, 16 agosto 2007.

75. Michael T. Klare, “The Energy Crunch to Come”, TomDispatch.com, 22 marzo 2005; Jad Mouawad, “Big Oil’s Burden of Too Much Cash”, New York Times, 12 febbraio 2005; Mark Williams, “The End of Oil?” Technology Review, febbraio 2005; John Vidal, “The End of Oil Is Closer Than You Think”, Guardian (Londra), 21 aprile 2005.

76. James Picerno, “If We Really Have the Oil”, Bloomberg Wealth Manager, settembre 2002, p. 45; Klare, op. cit. nota 75; Richard C. Duncan, Walter Youngquist, “Encircling the Peak of World Oil Production”, Natural Resource Research, vol. 12, n. 4 (dicembre 2003), p. 222; Walter Youngquist, GeoDestinies: The Inevitable Control of Earth Resources over Nations and Individuals, National Book Company, Portland 1997; A.M. Samsam Bakhtiari, “World Oil Production Capacity Model Suggests Output Peak by 2006-07”, Oil and Gas Journal, 26 aprile 2004, pp. 18-20.

77. Fredrik Robelius, Giant Oil Fields – The Highway to Oil (Uppsala, Svezia: Uppsala University Press, 9 marzo 2007), pp. 81-84; Petrobras Brazil, “Production Goes on Stream in Tupi: Year I of a New Era”, www2.petrobras.com.br/Petrobras/ingles/area_tupi.asp, visionato il 17 giugno 2009.

78. Guy Chazan, Neil King Jr., “Russian Oil Slump Stirs Supply Jitters”, Wall Street Journal, 15 aprile 2008; dati sul declino della produzione di petrolio in Russia da IEA, Oil Market Report (Parigi: maggio 2009).

79. Vidal, op. cit. nota 75.

80. Gargi Chakrabarty, “Shale’s New Hope”, Rocky Mountain News, 18 ottobre 2004; Walter Youngquist, “Alternative Energy Sources”, in Lee C. Gerhard, Patrick Leahy, Victor Yannacone, eds., Sustainability of Energy and Water through the 21st Century, Proceedings of the Arbor Day Farm Conference, 8-11 ottobre 2000 (Lawrence, KS: Kansas Geological Survey, 2002), p. 65.

81. Robert Collier, “Canadian Oil Sands: Vast Reserves Second to Saudi Arabia Will Keep America Moving, But at a Steep Environmental Cost”, San Francisco Chronicle, 22 maggio 2005; Alberta Department of Energy, Alberta’s Oil Sands, 2008 (Edmonton, Alberta: giugno 2009); BP, BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2009 (Londra: giugno 2009), p. 11; Robin Pagnamenta, “Canadian Oil-Sand Mines Stuck as Crude Price Plummets”, The Times (Londra), 5 gennaio 2009; Jad Mouawad, “Big Oil Projects Put in Jeopardy by Fall in Prices”, New York Times, 16 dicembre 2008.

82. Sheila McNulty, “Tar Sands Refinery Projects Face a Sticky Future”, Financial Times, 5 gennaio 2009; Collier, op. cit. nota 81; Alfred J. Cavallo, “Oil: Caveat Empty”, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, vol. 61, n. 3 (maggio/giugno 2005), pp. 16-18; Richard Heinberg, “The End of the Oil Age”, Earth Island Journal, vol. 18, n. 3 (2003).

83. IEA, op. cit. nota 6, p. 507.

84. World Health Organization, “Air Pollution”, Fact Sheet 187 (Ginevra: aggiornato a settembre 2000); Janet Larsen, “Coal Takes Heavy Human Toll: Some 25,100 U.S. Deaths from Coal Use Largely Preventable”, Eco-Economy Update (Washington, DC: Earth Policy Institute, 24 agosto 2004).

85. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Science and Technology, “National Listing of Fish Advisories: 2005-06 National Listing”, bollettino d’informazione (Washington, DC: luglio 2007).

86. Jonathan Watts, “Beijing Blames Pollutants for Rise in Killer Cancers”, Guardian (Londra), 22 maggio 2007.

87. Barbara Demick, “China Blames Pollution for Surge in Birth Defects”, Los Angeles Times, 2 febbraio 2009; Steven Mufson, “Asian Nations Could Outpace U.S. in Developing Clean Energy”, Washington Post, 16 luglio 2009.

88. Keith Bradsher, “Green Power Takes Root in the Chinese Desert”, New York Times, 2 luglio 2009.

89. IEA, op. cit. nota 6, p. 507.

90. Paul Hawken, Inaugurazione dell’anno accademico 2009, University of Portland, Portland, OR, 3 maggio 2009.