PIANO B 4.0 | Note capitolo 4

CAPITOLO 4. stabilizzare il clima: una rivoluzione nell’efficienza energetica


1. Global Wind Energy Council, Global Wind 2008 Report (Bruxelles: 2009), pp. 3, 56; Erik Shuster, Tracking New Coal-Fired Power Plants (Pittsburgh, PA: U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory, gennaio 2009); “Nuclear Dips in 2008”, World Nuclear News, 29 maggio 2009; 1 megawatt di capacità  eolica installata produce energia sufficiente per 300 abitazioni da American Wind Energy Association, “U.S. Wind Energy Installations Reach New Milestone”, comunicato stampa (Washington, DC: 14 agosto 2006); numero di abitazioni calcolato in base alla dimensione media di una abitazione americana da U.S. Census Bureau, “2005-2007 American Community Survey 3-Year Estimates – Data Profile Highlights”, factfinder.census.gov/servlet/ACSSAFFFacts, visionato il 9 aprile 2009, popolazione da U.S. Census Bureau, State & Country QuickFacts, quickfacts.census.gov, aggiornato al 20 febbraio 2009.

2. Concentrazioni di anidride carbonica calcolate sulle emissioni da combustibili fossili da Tom Boden, Gregg Marland, “Global CO2 Emissions from Fossil-Fuel Burning, Cement Manufacture, and Gas Flaring: 1751-2006″ e “Preliminary 2006-07 Global & National Estimates by Extrapolation”, entrambi in Carbon Dioxide Information and Analysis Center (CDIAC), Fossil Fuel CO2 Emissions (Oak Ridge, TN: Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), 2009), ed emissioni dal cambio nell’uso dei suoli da R.A. Houghton, “Carbon Flux to the Atmosphere from Land-Use Changes”, in CDIAC, Trends: A Compendium of Data on Global Change (Oak Ridge, TN: ORNL, 2008), citato in J. Hansen et al., “Dangerous Human-Made Interference with Climate: A GISS ModelE Study”, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol. 7 (2007), pp. 2.287-312; concentrazioni attuali da Pieter Tans, “Trends in Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide-Mauna Loa”, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Earth System Research Laboratory, www.esrl.noaa.gov/ gmd/ccgg/trends, visionato il 7 aprile 2009.

3. James Hansen et al., “Target Atmospheric CO2: Where Should Humanity Aim?”, Open Atmospheric Science Journal, vol. 2 (15 ottobre 2008), pp. 217-31.

4. Lester R. Brown, “Creating New Jobs, Cutting Carbon Emissions, and Reducing Oil Imports by Investing in Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency”, Plan B Update (Washington, DC: Earth Policy Institute, 11 dicembre 2008).

5. S. Pacala, R. Socolow, “Stabilization Wedges: Solving the Climate Problem for the Next 50 Years with Current Technologies”, Science, vol. 305 (13 agosto 2004), pp. 968-72.

6. Ibid.

7. International Alliance of Research Universities, Climate Change: Global Risks, Challenges & Decisions, Synthesis Report from International Scientific Congress (Copenaghen: University of Copenaghen, 2009).

8. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) e DOE, “Energy Star Change a Light, Change the World”, bollettino d’informazione (Washington, DC: 23 aprile 2007); Larry Kinney, Lighting Systems in Southwestern Homes: Problems and Opportunities, preparato per DOE, Building America Program through the Midwest Research Institute, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) (Boulder, CO: Southwest Energy Efficiency Project, giugno 2005), pp. 4-5.

9. Alice McKeown, “Strong Growth in Compact Fluorescent Bulbs Reduces Electricity Demand”, Vital Signs Online (Washington, DC: Worldwatch Institute, 27 ottobre 2008); “Alliance Calls for Only Energy-Efficient Lighting in U.S. Market by 2016, Joins Coalition Dedicated to Achieving Goal”, comunicato stampa (Washington, DC: Alliance to Save Energy, 14 marzo 2007); DOE, Big Results, Bigger Potential: CFL Market Profile (Washington, DC: Energy Star, marzo 2009).

10. Ministry for the Environment and Natural Resources, “World First! Australia Slashes Greenhouse Gases from Inefficient Lighting”, comunicato stampa (Canberra, Australia: 20 febbraio 2007); Rob Gillies, “Canada Announces Greenhouse Gas Targets”, Associated Press, 25 aprile 2007; European Parliament, “Incandescent Light Bulbs: Environment Committee Backs Phase-Out Plan”, comunicato stampa (Bruxelles: 17 febbraio 2009).

11. International Energy Agency (IEA), Light’s Labour’s Lost: Policies for Energy-efficient Lighting (Parigi: 2006), p. 375; Deborah Zabarenko, “China to Switch to Energy-Efficient Lightbulbs”, Reuters, 3 ottobre 2007; Greenpeace India, “India’s Light Bulb Phase Out: Setting a Smart Example”, comunicato stampa (New Delhi: 25 febbraio 2009).

12. Dati sui rivenditori da Deloitte, Feeling the Squeeze, Global Powers of Retailing 2009 (Londra: 2009); Walmart Stores Inc., “Greenhouse Gas Emissions Fact Sheet” (Bentonville, AR: 2009); Hillary Osborne, “Currys to Stop Selling Incandescent Bulbs”, Guardian (Londra), 13 marzo 2007.

13. CREE LED Lighting, “Ultra-Efficient Lighting”, www.creelighting.com/efficiency.htm, visionato il 17 aprile 2009; Navigant Consulting Inc., Energy Savings Estimates of Light Emitting Diodes in Niche Lighting Applications (Washington, DC: DOE, rev. ottobre 2008); Anthony DePalma, “It Never Sleeps, But It’s Learned to Douse the Lights”, New York Times, 11 dicembre 2005; “Mayor Villaraigosa, President Clinton Light the Way to a Greener LA”, comunicato stampa (Los Angeles, CA: Office of the Mayor, 16 febbraio 2009).

14. “Smart LED Lighting Makes Parking Garages Greener, Safer”, Environment News Service, 13 gennaio 2009.

15. Tempo di vita del LED calcolato da EPA e DOE, op. cit. nota 8, e da “Company Profile: Expanding LED Possibilities at Samsung Electromechanics”, LEDs Magazine, aprile 2007.

16. IEA, op. cit. nota 11, pp. 25, 29, 38; CREE LED Lighting, op. cit. nota 13.

17. Risparmio energetico grazie all’efficienza nell’illuminazione calcolato in base a IEA, op. cit. nota 11, pp. 25, 29, e IEA, World Energy Outlook 2008 (Parigi: 2008), p. 507; il dato sulle centrali a carbone è stato calcolato assumendo che un impianto medio abbia una potenza di 500 megawatt e che operi per il 72% del tempo, generando 3,15 miliardi di kilowattora di elettricità  all’anno.

18. Steven Nadel, The Federal Energy Policy Act of 2005 and Its Implications for Energy Efficiency Program Efforts (Washington, DC: American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy, 2005).

19. John M. Broder, “Obama Orders New Rules to Raise Energy Efficiency”, New York Times, 6 febbraio 2009.

20. National Bureau of Statistics of China (NBS), China Statistical Yearbook (Beijing: varie annualità ), e-mail a Jessie Robbins, Earth Policy Institute, da David Fridley, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), DOE, 4 giugno 2009.

21. “Final Energy Consumption”, in LBNL, China Energy Databook, v. 7.0 (Berkeley, CA: ottobre 2008); NBS, “Electricity Balance Sheet”, in China Statistical Yearbook 2008, www.stats.gov.cn/english, visionato il 21 luglio 2009.

22. U.N. Population Division, World Population Prospects: The 2008 Revision Population Database, esa.un.org/unpp, aggiornato all’11 marzo 2009; Greenpeace, “Your Energy Savings”, www.greenpeace.org/international/ campaigns/climate-change/take_action/your-energy, visionato il 28 maggio 2009.

23. Marianne Haug et al., Cool Appliances: Policy Strategies for Energy Efficient Homes (Parigi: IEA, 2003); Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry, Top Runner Program: Developing the World’s Best Energy-Efficient Appliances (Tokyo: 2008).

24. Haug et al., op. cit. nota 23; Alan K. Meier, A Worldwide Review of Standby Power Use in Homes (Berkeley, CA: LBNL, 2002).

25. Lloyd Harrington et al., Standby Energy: Building a Coherent International Policy Framework – Moving to the Next Level (Stoccolma: European Council for an Energy Efficient Economy, 2007).

26. Meier, op. cit. nota 24.

27. Geoffrey Lean, Jonathan Owen, “Giant Plasma TVs Face Ban in Battle to Green Britain”, The Independent (Londra), 11 gennaio 2009; California Energy Commission, “Frequently Asked Questions – FAQs Energy Efficiency Standards for Televisions”, www.energy.ca.gov/ appliances/tv_faqs.html, visionato il 29 aprile 2009.

28. IEA, op. cit. nota 17, p. 507.

29. U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC), “Green Building Facts” (Washington, DC: aprile 2009).

30. Edward Mazria, “It’s the Architecture, Stupid! Who Really Holds the Key to the Global Thermostat? The Answer Might Surprise You”, World and I, maggio/giugno 2003; Clinton Foundation, “Energy Efficiency Building Retrofit Program”, bollettino d’informazione (New York: maggio 2007).

31. Davis Langdon, The Cost & Benefit of Achieving Green Buildings (Sydney: 2007).

32. German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU), Heat from Renewable Energies: What Will the New Heat Act Achieve? (Berlino: luglio 2008); BMU, Consolidated Version of the Reasoning Behind the Act on the Promotion of Renewable Energies in the Heat Sector (Berlino: agosto 2008).

33. DOE, “Transforming the Way Americans Use Energy”, energy.gov/recovery/energy_efficiency.htm, visionato il 9 aprile 2009; DOE, “Secretaries Donovan and Chu Announce Partnership to Help Working Families Weatherize Their Homes”, comunicato stampa (Washington, DC: 27 febbraio 2009).

34. USGBC, “About LEED”, bollettino d’informazione (Washington, DC: 2007).

35. USGBC, op. cit. nota 29; USGBC, “LEED for New Construction” (Washington, DC: 2007).

36. USGBC, LEED 2009 for New Construction and Major Renovations, Version 3.0 (Washington, DC: aprile 2009).

37. Ibid.

38. USGBC, op. cit. nota 29.

39. NREL, The Philip Merrill Environmental Center, Chesapeake Bay Foundation: Highlighting High Performance (Golden, CO: aprile 2002).

40. “Toyota Seeks Gold for New Green Buildings”, GreenBiz.com, 23 aprile 2003; “The Green Stamp of Approval”, Business Week, 11 settembre 2006.

41. Nick Carey, Ilaina Jonas, “Green Buildings Need More Incentives in US”, Reuters, 15 febbraio 2007; Alexander Durst, The Durst Organization, conversazione con Jignasha Rana, Earth Policy Institute, 2 luglio 2009.

42. Carey, Jonas, op. cit. nota 41.

43. Barnaby J. Feder, “Environmentally Conscious Development”, New York Times, 25 agosto 2004.

44. World Green Business Council, “Established Green Building Councils” e “Emerging Green Business Councils”, www.worldgbc.org/greenbuilding-councils, visionato il 10 aprile 2009; Area abitabile certificata LEED da Marie Coleman, USGBC, e-mail a Jignasha Rana, Earth Policy Institute, 1° giugno 2009.

45. USGBC, op. cit. nota 34; “Clinton Unveils $5 Billion Green Makeover for Cities”, Environment News Service, 16 maggio 2007.

46. USGBC, op. cit. nota 34; “Clinton Unveils $5 Billion Green Makeover for Cities”, op. cit. nota 45; USGBC, “The Clinton Climate Initiative and the U.S. Green Building Council Expand Global Partnership”, comunicato stampa (Washington, DC: 10 febbraio 2009).

47. Clinton Foundation, “CCI Helps Retrofit Empire State Building”, comunicato stampa (New York: 6 aprile 2009); Molly Miller, “Leading Example for Energy Efficiency”, comunicato stampa (Boulder, CO: Rocky Mountain Institute, aprile 2009).

48. Brad Heavner, Environment Maryland, testimonianza davanti alla Subcommittee on Energy and Air Quality, Energy and Commerce Committee, U.S. House of Representatives, Washington, DC, 17 luglio 2008.

49. Mazria, op. cit. nota 30; 2030 Challenge, www.architecture2030.org.

50. Mazria, op. cit. nota 30.

51. Ibid.

52. Yuri Kageyama, “Toyota US Hybrid Sales Surpass Million Units”, Associated Press, 12 marzo 2009; National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Summary of Fuel Economy Performance (Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation, 30 marzo 2009).

53. Roger Duncan, “Plug-In Hybrids: Pollution-Free Transport on the Horizon”, Solar Today, maggio/giugno 2007, p. 46.

54. Chris Gaylord, “Electric Cars Around the Corner”, Christian Science Monitor, 16 marzo 2009; Micheline Maynard, “Toyota Plans to Leapfrog G.M. with a Plug-In”, New York Times, 12 gennaio 2009; Norihiko Shirouzu, “Technology Levels Playing Field in Race to Market Electric Car”, Wall Street Journal, 12 gennaio 2009.

55. Maynard, op. cit. nota 54; General Motors, “Imagine: A Daily Commute Without Using a Drop of Gas”, www.chevrolet.com/electriccar, visionato l’8 agosto 2008.

56. Matthew Dolan, Joan Murphy, “Nissan, Ford Plan Electric Push Aided by U.S.; Demand is Uncertain”, Wall Street Journal, 24 giugno 2009; Think, “Think Announces U.S. Factory Plans”, comunicato stampa (Snarà¸ya, Norvegia: 12 marzo 2009); CalCars, “How Carmakers are Responding to the Plug-In Hybrid Opportunity”, www.calcars.org/carmakers.html, visionato 3 giugno 2009.

57. Michael Kintner-Meyer et al., Impacts Assessment of Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles on Electric Utilities and Regional U.S. Power Grids – Part 1: Technical Analysis (Richland, WA: DOE, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 2006).

58. Steve Hamm, “The Electric Car Acid Test”, Business Week, 4 febbraio 2008, pp. 42-46; Better Place, “Global Progress”, www.betterplace.com/global-progress, visionato il 14 aprile 2009.

59. Hiroki Matsumoto, “The Shinkansen: Japan’s High Speed Railway”, testimonianza davanti al Subcommittee on Railroads, Pipelines and Materials (Washington, DC: Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure, 19 aprile 2007); Central Japan Railway Company, Annual Report 2008, english.jr-central.co.jp/company/ir/annualreport/index.html, visionato il 29 maggio 2009.

60. Matsumoto, op. cit. nota 59.

61. Ibid.

62. Inaki Barron, “High Speed Rail: The Big Picture”, testimonianza davanti al Subcommittee on Railroads, Pipelines and Materials (Washington, DC: Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure, 19 aprile 2007); Rail-team, “European High Speed Rail Operators Launch Railteam”, comunicato stampa (Bruxelles: 2 luglio 2007); Bruce Crumley, “European Train Travel: Working on the Railroad”, Time, 28 maggio 2009.

63. “Ave Madrid”, The Economist, 5 febbraio 2009.

64. “A High-Speed Revolution”, The Economist, 5 luglio 2007.

65. Barron, op. cit. nota 62.

66. Jack Kinstlinger, Magnetic Levitation High Speed Rail Service Along the Eastern Seaboard (Hunt Valley, MD: KCI Technologies, Inc., 2007).

67. Huang Xin, “China Starts Work on Beijing-Shanghai Express Railway”, Xinhua, 18 aprile 2008.

68. John L. Mica, “Opening Statement: Rep. Shuster from Today’s Hearing on High Speed Rail”, comunicato stampa (Washington, DC: Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure, 19 aprile 2007); American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, Public Law 111-5, 111th Congress, 1st session (6 gennaio 2009).

69. National Interstate and Defense Highways Act (1956), Public Law 627, Chapter 462, 84th Congress, 2nd session (27 giugno 1956).

70. “Californians Approve High-Speed Rail, Nix Fake Clean Energy Props”, Environment News Service, 5 novembre 2008.

71. Gerhard Metschies, “Pain at the Pump”, Foreign Policy, luglio/agosto 2007; Ward’s Automotive Group, World Motor Vehicle Data 2008 (Southfield, MI: 2008).

72. Office of the Press Secretary, “President Obama Announces National Fuel Efficiency Policy”, comunicato stampa (Washington, DC: 19 maggio 2009); Keith Bradsher, “China Is Said to Plan Strict Gas Mileage Rules”, New York Times, 27 maggio 2009; Andrew C. Revkin, “Fuel Efficiency Standards: Not So Efficient?”, New York Times, 19 maggio 2009.

73. Ernst Ulrich von Weizsà¤cker, Amory B. Lovins, L. Hunter Lovins, Factor Four: Doubling Wealth, Halving Resource Use (Londra: Earthscan, 1997: ed it. Fattore 4. Come ridurre l’impatto ambientale moltiplicando per 4 l’efficienza della produzione, Edizioni Ambiente 2009); Friedrich Schmidt-Bleek et al., Factor 10: Making Sustain-ability Accountable, Putting Resource Productivity into Praxis (Carnoules, Francia: Factor 10 Club, 1998), p. 5.

74. William McDonough, Michael Braungart, Cradle to Cradle: Remaking the Way We Make Things (New York: North Point Press, 2002); Rebecca Smith, “Beyond Recycling: Manufacturers Embrace ‘C2C’ Design”, Wall Street Journal, 3 marzo 2005.

75. Rona Fried, “Recycling Industry Offers Recession-Proof Investing”, Solar Today, luglio/agosto 2008, pp. 22-23.

76. Claude Mandil et al., Tracking Industrial Energy Efficiency and CO2 Emissions (Parigi: IEA, 2007), pp. 39, 59-61.

77. World Steel Association, World Steel in Figures 2009 (Bruxelles: 2009); Mandil et al., op. cit. nota 76, pp. 39, 59-61.

78. “Iron and Steel Scrap”, in U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Mineral Commodity Summaries (Reston, VA: U.S. Department of the Interior, 2009), pp. 84-85; “Steel Recycling Rates at a Glance”, bollettino d’informazione (Pittsburgh, PA: Steel Recycling Institute, 2007); Mississippi Department of Environmental Quality, “Recycling Trivia”, www.deq.state.ms.us, visionato il 17 ottobre 2007.

79. Mandil et al., op. cit. nota 76, p. 106; risparmi nell’uso di energia da International Iron and Steel Institute (IISI), “Crude Steel Production by Process”, World Steel in Figures 2007, www.worldsteel.org, visionato il 16 ottobre 2007; McKinsey Global Institute, Curbing Global Energy Demand Growth: The Energy Productivity Opportunity (Washington, DC: maggio 2007).

80. “Cement”, in USGS, op. cit. nota 78, pp. 40-41; risparmi energetici realizzati adottando tecnologie giapponesi da U.N. Environment Programme, Buildings and Climate Change: Status, Challenges and Opportunities (Parigi: 2007), p. 19; risparmi energetici realizzati adottando forni ad arco da Mandil et al., op. cit. nota 76.

81. Peso degli autobus da John Shonsey et al., RTD Bus Transit Facility Design Guidelines and Criteria (Denver, CO: Regional Transportation District, febbraio 2006); peso delle automobili da Stacy C. Davis, Susan W. Diegel, Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 26 (Oak Ridge, TN: ORNL, DOE, 2007), p. 415; confronto autobus-automobili da American Public Transportation Association, The Benefits of Public Transportation – An Overview (Washington, DC: settembre 2002).

82. Mandil et al., op. cit. nota 76, pp. 265-68.

83. Ljupka Arsova et al., “The State of Garbage in America”, BioCycle, vol. 49, n. 12 (dicembre 2008); Malia Wollan, “San Francisco to Toughen a Strict Recycling Law”, New York Times, 11 giugno 2009; Felicity Barringer, “A City Committed to Recycling is Ready for More”, New York Times, 7 maggio 2008.

84. “New Hampshire Town Boosts Recycling with Pay-As-You-Throw”, Environment News Service, 21 marzo 2007; dati sulla popolazione da Town of Lyme Web site, www.lymenh.gov, visionato il 3 giugno 2009.

85. “New Hampshire Town Boosts Recycling”, op. cit. nota 84.

86. Finlandia in Brenda Platt, Neil Seldman, Wasting and Recycling in the United States 2000 (Athens, GA: GrassRoots Recycling Network, 2000); Prince Edward Island Government, “PEI Bans the Can”, www.gov.pe.ca, visionato il 15 agosto 2005; Brenda Platt, Doug Rowe, Reduce, Reuse, Refill! (Washington, DC: Institute for Local Self-Reliance, 2002); David Saphire, Case Reopened: Reassessing Refillable Bottles (New York: INFORM, Inc., 1994).

87. Sue McAllister, “Commercial Recycling Centers: Turning Debris into Treasure”, San Jose Mercury News, 10 aprile 2007.

88. Brian Hindo, “Everything Old is New Again”, BusinessWeek Online, 25 settembre 2006.

89. Junko Edahiro, Japan for Sustainability, e-mail a Janet Larsen, Earth Policy Institute, 16 ottobre 2007; Tim Burt, “VW is Set for $500m Recycling Provision”, Financial Times, 12 febbraio 2001; Mark Magnier, “Disassembly Lines Hum in Japan’s New Industry”, Los Angeles Times, 13 maggio 2001.

90. “FT Report-Waste and the Environment: EU Tackles Gadget Mountain”, Financial Times, 18 aprile 2007; Jeremy Faludi, “Pop Goes the Cell Phone”, Worldchanging, 4 aprile 2006.

91. Rick Ridgeway, Environmental Initiatives and Special Media Projects, Patagonia, Inc., conversazione con l’autore, 22 agosto 2006; Patagonia, “Patagonia Announces Major Expansion of Garment Recycling Program”, comunicato stampa (Ventura, CA: 28 gennaio 2008); Jen Rapp, Patagonia, e-mail a Jignasha Rana, Earth Policy Institute, 28 aprile 2009.

92. Hindo, op. cit. nota 88.

93. Daniel Michaels, “Boeing and Airbus Compete to Destroy What They Built”, Wall Street Journal, 1° giugno 2007.

94. Ibid.

95. “Gold Statistics”, in T.D. Kelly, G.R. Matos, comps., Historical Statistics for Mineral and Material Commodities in the United States: U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 140 (Reston, VA: USGS, U.S. Department of the Interior, 2008); World Steel Association, op. cit. nota 77; dati sull’oro calcolati da New Jersey Mining Company Reserves & Resources, “Estimated Ore Reserves”, www.newjerseymining.com, aggiornato al 31 dicembre 2006; dati sull’acciaio calcolati da Mandil et al., op. cit. nota 76, p. 115; emissioni di anidride carbonica calcolate da Gavin M. Mudd, “Resource Consumption Intensity and the Sustainability of Gold Mining”, 2nd International Conference on Sustainability Engineering and Science, Auckland, New Zealand, 20-23 febbraio 2007; EPA, Emission Facts: Average Annual Emissions and Fuel Consumption for Passenger Cars and Light Trucks (Washington, DC: aprile 2000).

96. Catherine Ferrier, Bottled Water: Understanding a Social Phenomenon (Surrey, UK: WWF, 2001).

97. Consumi di petrolio calcolati usando il numero di bottiglie di plastica gettate da Jennifer Gitlitz et al., Water, Water Everywhere: The Growth of Non-carbonated Beverages in the United States (Washington, DC: Container Recycling Institute, febbraio 2007); I. Boustead, Eco-profiles of the European Plastics Industry: PET Bottles (Bruxelles: PlasticsEurope, Association of Plastics Manufacturers, marzo 2005), pp. 4-9; DOE, Energy Information Administration, “Oil Market Basics: Demand”, www.eia.doe.gov/pub/oil_gas/petroleum/analysis_publications/oil_market_basics/de mand_text.htm, visionato il 23 gennaio 2006; Ward’s Automotive Group, Ward’s World Motor Vehicle Data 2006 (Southfield, MI: 2006), p. 242; Pacific Institute, “Bottled Water and Energy”, bollettino d’informazione (Oakland, CA: 2007).

98. “S.F. Mayor Bans Bottled Water at City Offices”, Associated Press, 25 giugno 2007; Ross C. Anderson, Salt Lake City Mayor, National Press Telephone Conference, Think Outside the Bottle Campaign, 9 ottobre 2007.

99. Janet Larsen, “Bottled Water Boycotts: Back-to-the-Tap Movement Gains Momentum”, Plan B Update (Washington, DC: Earth Policy Institute, 7 dicembre 2007); John G. Rodwan, Jr., Confronting Challenges: U.S. and International Bottled Water Developments and Statistics for 2008 (New York: Beverage Marketing Corporation, aprile/maggio 2009).

100. John Roach, “Plastic-Bag Bans Gaining Momentum around the World”, National Geographic News, 4 aprile 2008.

101. Michael Goggin, “Curtailment, Negative Prices Symptomatic of Inadequate Transmission”, Wind Energy Weekly, vol. 27, n. 1305 (5 settembre 2008).

102. Joint Coordinated System Plan, Joint Coordinated System Plan ’08 Report Volume 1: Economic Assessment, www.jcspstudy.org, 2008.

103. S. Massoud Amin, Clark W. Gellings, “The North American Power Delivery System: Balancing Market Restructuring and Environmental Economics with Infrastructure Security”, Energy, vol. 31, numeri 6-7 (maggio/giugno 2006), pp. 967-99; Bracken Hendricks, Wired for Progress 2.0: Building a National Clean-Energy Smart Grid (Washington, DC: Center for American Progress, aprile 2009), p. 31.

104. Helen Knight, “Renewable Energy: Will the Lights Stay On?”, New Scientist, 11 ottobre 2008, pp. 30-31; Repower America, “Unified National Smart Grid”, www.repoweramerica.org, visionato il 30 giugno 2009.

105. Ashlea Ebeling, “What Would You Pay to Stay Cool?”, Forbes, 15 agosto 2007.

106. Knight, op. cit. nota 104.

107. Ibid.

108. Rebecca Smith, “Consumers: A Little Knowledge…”, Wall Street Journal, 30 giugno 2008; U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Mid-Atlantic Information Office, Average Energy Prices in the Washington-Baltimore Area: aprile 2009 (Philadelphia, PA: 1° giugno 2009); Ahmad Faruqui, Sanem Sergici, BGE’s Smart Energy Pricing Pilot Summer 2008 Impact Evaluation (Cambridge, MA: The Brattle Group, 28 aprile 2009), pp. 1-2; Baltimore Gas and Electric Company, “Re: Supplement 437 to P.S.C. Md E-6 – Rider 26 – Peak Time Rebate”, Public Service Commission of Maryland, 15 aprile e 22 giugno 2009.

109. The Edison Foundation, “Utility-Scale Smart Meter Deployments, Plans & Proposals (IOUs)”, numero breve (Washington, DC: maggio 2009).

110. Smart Meters, “Finland Leads Europe in Smart Grid Development”, (Isle of Benbecula, Scozia: 16 gennaio 2009).

111. Erik Olsen, “Smart Meters Open Market for Smart Apps”, Green, Inc., Nytimes.com, 7 ottobre 2008.

112. IEA, op. cit. nota 17, p. 506.

113. IEA, World Energy Outlook 2006 (Parigi: 2006), p. 492; IEA, op. cit. nota 11, pp. 25, 29.

114. Natalie Mims, Mathias Bell, Stephen Doig, Assessing the Electric Productivity Gap and the U.S. Efficiency Opportunity (Snowmass, CO: Rocky Mountain Institute, gennaio 2009), pp. 6, 16-17.

115. Mandil et al., op. cit. nota 76, pp. 39, 59-61, 95-96, 139-42.