PIANO B 4.0 | Note capitolo 7

CAPITOLO 7. debellare la povertà  e stabilizzare la popolazione

1. U.N. General Assembly, “United Nations Millennium Declaration”, risoluzione adottata dall’Assemblea Generale l’8 settembre 2000; World Bank, Global Monitoring Report 2007: Millennium Development Goals (Washington, DC: 2007), p. 39; World Bank, Global Monitoring Report 2009: A Development Emergency (Washington, DC: 2009), p. 17.

2. World Bank, “Millennium Development Goals – Country Tables”, www.developmentgoals.org, aggiornato ad aprile 2009; U.N. Population Division, World Population Prospects: The 2008 Revision Population Database, esa.un.org/unpp, aggiornato all’11 marzo 2009.

3. World Bank, op. cit. nota 2; U.N. Population Division, op. cit. nota 2; Jeffrey D. Sachs, “India Takes the Lead”, Korea Herald, 4 agosto 2004; International Monetary Fund (IMF), World Economic Outlook, www.imf.org, aggiornato ad aprile 2009.

4. UNESCO, Overcoming Inequality: Why Governance Matters, Education for All Global Monitoring Report 2009 (Parigi: 2008), p. 195; Sara Miller Llana, “Brazil Becomes Antipoverty Showcase”, Christian Science Monitor, 13 novembre 2008; World Bank, op. cit. nota 2; U.N. Population Division, op. cit. nota 2.

5. U.N. Statistics Division, Millennium Development Goals Indicators, mdgs.un.org/unsd/mdg/Data.aspx, aggiornato al 14 luglio 2009; World Bank, Global Monitoring Report 2008: MDGs and the Environment (Washington, DC: 2008), p. 2.

6. World Bank, Global Economic Prospects: Commodities at a Crossroads 2009 (Washington, DC: 2009), pp. 11-12; World Bank, Poverty Data: A Supplement to World Development Indicators 2008 (Washington, DC: 2008), p. 1.

7. U.N. Population Division, op. cit. nota 2; G-8 leaders, “Gleneagles Communiqué on Africa, Climate Change, Energy and Sustainable Development”, documento dal G-8 Summit, Gleneagles, Scotland, luglio 2005; stati in fallimento da World Bank, Global Monitoring Report 2007, op. cit. nota 1, p. 4.

8. U.N. General Assembly, op. cit. nota 1.

9. World Bank, Global Monitoring Report 2009, op. cit. nota 1, p. 14; U.N. Food and Agriculture Organization, “1.02 Billion People Hungry”, comunicato stampa (Roma: 19 giugno 2009); U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), Production, Supply and Distribution, www.fas.usda.gov/psdonline, aggiornato al 12 maggio 2009; USDA, Feedgrains Database, www.ers.usda.gov/Data/feedgrains, aggiornato al 19 maggio 2009; U.N. Population Division, op. cit. nota 2.

10. UNESCO, op. cit. nota 4, p. 65.

11. Martha Campbell et al., “Return of the Population Growth Factor”, Science, vol. 315 (16 marzo 2007), pp. 1501-02; Martha Campbell, conversazione con Janet Larsen, Earth Policy Institute, 8 ottobre 2007; All Party Parliamentary Group on Population Development and Reproductive Health, Return of the Population Growth Factor: Its Impact on the Millennium Development Goals (Londra: Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, gennaio 2007), pp. 1-9.

12. World Bank, Global Monitoring Report 2009, op. cit. nota 1, p. 19; Hilaire A. Mputu, Literacy and Non-Formal Education in the E-9 Countries (Parigi: UNESCO, 2001), p. 5; Polly Curtis, “Lack of Education ‘a Greater Threat than Terrorism’: Sen”, Guardian (Londra), 28 ottobre 2003.

13. Paul Blustein, “Global Education Plan Gains Backing”, Washington Post, 22 aprile 2002; World Bank, “World Bank Announces First Group of Countries for ‘Education For All’ Fast Track”, comunicato stampa (Washington, DC: 12 giugno 2002); Gene Sperling, “The G-8 – Send 104 Million Friends to School”, Bloomberg News, 20 giugno 2005.

14. United Nations, Millennium Development Goals Report 2008 (New York: 2008), p. 14; World Bank, Global Monitoring Report 2009, op. cit. nota 1, Annex.

15. Gene Sperling, “Toward Universal Education”, Foreign Affairs, settembre/ottobre 2001, pp. 7-13.

16. Gene Sperling, “Educate Them All”, Washington Post, 20 aprile 2002.

17. U.K. Treasury, From Commitment to Action: Education (Londra: Department for International Development, settembre 2005).

18. UNESCO, EFA Global Monitoring Report 2007: Strong Foundations (Parigi: 2006), p. 2; U.N. Commission on Population and Development, Thirty-sixth Session, Population, Education, and Development, comunicato stampas, 31 marzo-4 aprile 2003; UNESCO, “Winners of UNESCO Literacy Prizes 2003”, comunicato stampa, 27 maggio 2003.

19. George McGovern, The Third Freedom: Ending Hunger in Our Time, Simon & Schuster, New York 2001, capitolo 1.

20. Jeffrey Sachs, “A New Map of the World”, The Economist, 22 giugno 2000; George McGovern, “Yes We CAN Feed the World’s Hungry”, Parade, 16 dicembre 2001.

21. McGovern, op. cit. nota 20.

22. Ibid.

23. Ibid.

24. World Bank, Global Monitoring Report 2009, op. cit. nota 1, Annex; UNICEF, “Under-five Mortality Rate”, www.childinfo.org/ mortalityunderfive.php, aggiornato a gennaio 2009.

25. World Bank, Global Monitoring Report 2009, op. cit. nota 1, p. 72.

26. Mustaque Chowdhury, Health Workforce for TB Control by DOTS: The BRAC Case, Joint Learning Initiative Working Paper 5-2 (Global Health Trust, 2004).

27. Jeffrey D. Sachs and the Commission on Macroeconomics and Health, Macroeconomics and Health: Investing in Health for Economic Development (Ginevra: World Health Organization (WHO), 2001); “UNICEF Lists Top Causes of Child Deaths”, Reuters, 13 settembre 2007; Ruth Levine and the What Works Working Group, Millions Saved: Proven Successes in Global Health (Washington, DC: Center for Global Development, 2004).

28. Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, “Global Health Program Fact Sheet” (Seattle, WA: 2009).

29. John Donnelly, “U.S. Seeks Cuts in Health Programs Abroad”, Boston Globe, 5 febbraio 2003.

30. Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), Report on the Global AIDS Epidemic 2008 (Ginevra: agosto 2008), pp. 15-16, 30.

31. Nita Bhalla, “Teaching Truck Drivers About AIDS”, BBC, 25 giugno 2001; C.B.S. Venkataramana, P.V. Sarada, “Extent and Speed of Spread of HIV Infection in India Through the Commercial Sex Networks: A Perspective”, Tropical Medicine and International Health, vol. 6, n. 12 (dicembre 2001), pp. 1.040-61, citato in “HIV Spread Via Female Sex Workers in India Set to Increase Significantly by 2005”, Reuters Health, 26 dicembre 2001.

32. Mark Covey, “Target Soldiers in Fight Against AIDS Says New Report”, comunicato stampa (Londdra: Panos Institute, 8 luglio 2002); “Free Condoms for Soldiers”, South Africa Press Association, 5 agosto 2001; gruppi a rischio HIV da UNAIDS, op. cit. nota 30, p. 215.

33. Fabbisogno di preservativi da Population Action International, “Why Condoms Count in the Era of HIV/AIDS”, bollettino d’informazione (Washington, DC: 2008); costo per preservativo e per la loro distribuzione da United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), Donor Support for Contraceptives and Condoms for STI/HIV Prevention 2007 (New York: 2008).

34. Nada Chaya, Kai-Ahset Amen, con Michael Fox, Condoms Count: Meeting the Need in the Era of HIV/AIDS (Washington, DC: Population Action International, 2002); costo per preservativo da UNFPA, op. cit. nota 33.

35. UNAIDS, “Global Facts and Figures”, bollettino d’informazione (Ginevra: agosto 2008); UNAIDS, op. cit. nota 30, p. 135.

36. “AIDS Summit: The Economics of Letting People Die”, Star Tribune, 16 luglio 2003.

37. Sachs and Commission on Macroeconomics and Health, op. cit. nota 27; WHO, “Smallpox”, bollettino d’informazione www.who.int, visionato il 10 ottobre 2005.

38. WHO, “Polio Eradication: Now More Than Ever, Stop Polio Forever”, www.who.int/features/2004/polio/en, visionato l’11 giugno 2009; Petina Dixon, Rotary International, conversazione con Jignasha Rana, Earth Policy Institute, 6 luglio 2009; Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, “Financial Innovation Will Buy Vaccine to Help Eradicate Polio Worldwide”, comunicato stampa (Seattle, WA: 29 aprile 2003).

39. “Wild Poliovirus 2000-2009”, in WHO Global Polio Eradication Initiative, “Wild Poliovirus Weekly Update”, www.polioeradication.org, aggiornato al 3 giugno 2009; Donald G. McNeil, Jr., “Mecca Pilgrims maggio Be Spreading Polio, Experts Say”, New York Times, 11 febbraio 2005; Nigeria from WHO, Global Polio Eradication Initiative: Annual Report 2006 (Ginevra: 2007), p. 6.

40. “Wild Poliovirus 2000-2009”, op. cit. nota 39; “Pakistan Polio Drive is Suspended”, BBC News, 8 agosto 2007; Isambard Wilkinson, “Taliban Blocks UN Polio Treatment in Pakistan”, Telegraph (Londra), 27 marzo 2009.

41. Declan Butler, “$630-Million for Push to Eradicate Polio”, Nature News, 21 gennaio 2009; Barack H. Obama, “Remarks by the President on a New Beginning”, discorso all’Università  del Cairo, Egitto, 4 giugno 2009.

42. Michele Barry, “The Tail of Guinea Worm – Global Eradication Without a Drug or Vaccine”, New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 356, n. 25 (21 giugno 2007), pp. 2.561-64.

43. “Grants Push Guinea Worm to All-Time Low”, (Atlanta, GA: The Carter Center, 20 gennaio 2009); The Carter Center, “Distribution by Country of 4,647 Cases of Indigenous Cases of Dracunculiasis Reported During 2008”, www.cartercenter.org/health/guinea_worm/ index.html, visionato il 13 maggio 2009.

44. Morti per il fumo da WHO, “Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)”, bollettino d’informazione (Ginevra: novembre 2006); “The Tobacco Epidemic: A Crisis of Startling Dimensions”, in Message from the Director-General of the World Health Organization for World No-Tobacco Day 1998, www.who.int; inquinamento atmosferico da WHO, “Air Pollution”, bollettino d’informazione 187 (Ginevra: rev. settembre 2000).

45. Alison Langley, “Anti-Smoking Treaty Is Adopted by 192 Nations”, New York Times, 22 maggio 2003; WHO Tobacco Free Initiative www.who.int/tobacco/index.cfm; obiettivi e Bloomberg da Alexi A. Wright, Ingrid T. Katz, “Tobacco Tightrope – Balancing Disease Prevention and Economic Development in China”, New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 356, n. 15 (12 aprile 2007), pp. 1.493-96.

46. Consumo di sigarette da USDA, Production, Supply and Distribution, op. cit. nota 9, e da Tom Capehart, Tobacco Outlook (Washington, DC: USDA, Economic Research Service (ERS), 24 aprile 2007); consumi pro capite e popolazione da U.N. Population Division, op. cit. nota 2; Daniel Yee, “Smoking Declines in U.S. – Barely”, CBS News, 10 novembre 2004.

47. Betsy McKay, “Cigarette Tax Clouds Boosts Among States”, Wall Street Journal, 8 febbraio 2009.

48. Consumo di sigarette da USDA, Production, Supply and Distribution, op. cit. nota 9, e da Capehart, op. cit. nota 46; consumi pro capite e popolazione da U.N. Population Division, op. cit. nota 2.

49. “Smoking Bans Around the World”, Reuters, 10 gennaio 2005; “New Zealand Stubs Out Smoking in Bars, Restaurants”, Reuters, 13 dicembre 2004.

50. “Bangladesh Bans Smoking in Many Public Places”, Reuters, 15 marzo 2005; Italia da “Europeans Back Public Smoking Ban”, BBC News, 31 maggio 2006; “England Smoking Ban Takes Effect”, BBC News, 1° luglio 2007; Francia da Howard K. Koh et al., “Making Smoking History Worldwide”, New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 356, n. 15 (12 aprile 2007), pp. 1.496-98; “French Cafes Set to Ban Smoking”, BBC News, 28 dicembre 2007; “Bulgaria Votes for Smoking Ban in Public Places”, Reuters, 15 maggio 2009; Ivana Sekularac, “Smoking Ban Angers Cafes, Smokers in Croatia”, Reuters, 6 maggio 2009.

51. “Connections between Diabetes and Alzheimer’s Disease Explored”, Science Daily, 11 maggio 2009.

52. “Cancer Most Lethal Illness in China Last Year”, China Daily, 8 maggio 2007; Barbara Demick, “China Blames Pollution for Surge in Birth Defects”, Los Angeles Times, 2 febbraio 2009.

53. Sachs e Commission on Macroeconomics and Health, op. cit. nota 27.

54. Paesi con più di un milione di abitanti e tasso di crescita dello 0,4% o meno da U.N. Population Division, World Population Prospects: The 2008 Revision, Extended Dataset, CD-ROM (New York: 9 aprile 2009).

55. Popolazione di Lesotho e Swaziland da Population Reference Bureau (PRB), Datafinder, www.prb.org.

56. U.N. Population Division, op. cit. nota 54.

57. Ibid.

58. Ibid.

59. Program for Appropriate Technology in Health (PATH) e UNFPA, Meeting the Need: Strengthening Family Planning Programs (Seattle, WA: 2006), pp. 5-11; citato da All Party Parliamentary Group, op. cit. nota 11, p. 22.

60. Janet Larsen, “Iran’s Birth Rate Plummeting at Record Pace”, in Lester R. Brown, Janet Larsen, Bernie Fischlowitz-Roberts, The Earth Policy Reader, W.W. Norton & Company, New York 2002, pp. 190-94.

61. Ibid.; vedi anche Homa Hoodfar, Samad Assadpour, “The Politics of Population Policy in the Islamic Republic of Iran”, Studies in Family Planning, marzo 2000, pp. 19-34, e Farzaneh Roudi, “Iran’s Family Planning Program: Responding to a Nation’s Needs”, MENA Policy Brief, giugno 2002; tasso di crescita della popolazione in Iran da United Nations, World Population Prospects: The 2004 Revision (New York: 2005).

62. Larsen, op. cit. nota 60.

63. Ibid.

64. Ibid.; tassi di crescita della popolazione da PRB, 2005 World Population Data Sheet, wall chart (Washington, DC: agosto 2005); U.N. Population Division, op. cit. nota 2.

65. Pamela Polston, “Lowering the Boom: Population Activist Bill Ryerson is Saving the World – One ‘Soap’ at a Time”, Seven Days, 21 agosto 2005.

66. Ibid.

67. Ibid.

68. Ibid.

69. Fondi addizionali da J. Joseph Speidel et al., Family Planning and Reproductive Health: The Link to Environmental Preservation (San Francisco: Bixby Center for Reproductive Health and Research Policy, University of California, 2007), p. 10, e da J. Joseph Speidel, conversazione con J. Matthew Roney, Earth Policy Institute, 16 ottobre 2007.

70. PATH e UNFPA, op. cit. nota 59, p. 18.

71. “Bangladesh: National Family Planning Program”, Family Planning Programs: Diverse Solutions for a Global Challenge (Washington, DC: PRB, 1994); Speidel et al., op. cit. nota 69, p. 10.

72. UNFPA, The State of World Population 2004 (New York: 2004), pp. 14-15.

73. United Nations, op. cit. nota 61; UNFPA, op. cit. nota 72, p. 39.

74. Fund for Peace and Foreign Policy, “The Failed States Index”, Foreign Policy, numero di luglio/agosto, 2005-09; U.S. Department of State, “Background Note: Liberia”, www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/6618.htm, aggiornato a giugno 2009; Marà­a Cristina Caballero, “‘Ma Ellen,’ African Symbol of Hope, Returns to Harvard”, Harvard University Gazette, 16 settembre 2006; “UN’s Ban to Visit Liberia as Blue Helmets Prepare Pullout”, Agence France-Presse, 20 aprile 2008.

75. Fund for Peace and Foreign Policy, op. cit. nota 74; Fund for Peace, “Country Profile: Colombia”, www.fundforpeace.org, visionato l’8 luglio 2009.

76. Commission on Weak States and U.S. National Security, On the Brink: Weak States and U.S. National Security (Washington, DC: Center for Global Development, 2004), p. 27.

77. The U.S. Commission on National Security in the 21st Century, Road Map for National Security: Imperative for Change (Washington, DC: febbraio 2001), p. 53.

78. Commission on Weak States and U.S. National Security, op. cit. nota 76, pp. 30-32.

79. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), Agricultural Policies in OECD Countries 2008: At a Glance (Parigi: 2008), p. 9; OECD, “Development Aid at its Highest Level Ever in 2008”, comunicato stampa (Parigi: 30 marzo 2009); “The Hypocrisy of Farm Subsidies”, New York Times, 1° dicembre 2002.

80. “The Hypocrisy of Farm Subsidies”, op. cit. nota 79.

81. OECD, “Development Aid”, op. cit. nota 79; OECD, OECD Statistics, stats.oecd.org/wbos, aggiornato 2009; “South Africa: Weaning States Off Subsidies”, Africa News, 19 agosto 2005.

82. Julian Alston et al., Impacts of Reductions in US Cotton Subsidies on West African Cotton Producers (Boston: Oxfam America, 2007); OECD, op. cit. nota 81; Elizabeth Becker, “U.S. Will Cut Farm Subsidies in Trade Deal”, New York Times, 31 luglio 2004; Randy Schnepf, U.S. Agricultural Policy Response to WTO Cotton Decision (Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, aggiornato all’8 settembre 2006).

83. Schnepf, op. cit. nota 82; Randy Schnepf, Brazil’s WTO Case Against the U.S. Cotton Program: A Brief Overview (Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, 17 marzo 2009).

84. World Bank, Global Economic Prospects, op. cit. nota 6, pp. 11-12.

85. “Ending the Cycle of Debt”, New York Times, 1° ottobre 2004; estinzione dei debiti da World Bank, Little Data Book on External Debt in Global Development Finance 2007 (Washington, DC: 2007), p. 8; spese sanitarie calcolate da IMF, World Economic and Financial Surveys: Regional Economic Outlook – Sub-Saharan Africa (Washington, DC: settembre 2006), pp. 36, 43, da David Goldsbrough, “IMF Programs and Health Spending”, presentato alla Global Conference on Gearing Macroeconomic Policies to Reverse the HIV/AIDS Epidemic, Brasà­lia, 20 novembre 2006, e da U.N. Population Division, World Population Prospects: The 2006 Revision Population Database, esa.un.org/unpp, aggiornato al 2007.

86. “G8 Finance Ministers’ Conclusions on Development”, Pre Summit Statement by G-8 Finance Ministers, Londra, 10-11 giugno 2005; Oxfam International, “Gleneagles: What Really Happened at the G8 Summit?”, Oxfam Briefing Note (Londra: 29 luglio 2005).

87. Oxfam International, “The View from the Summit – Gleneagles G8 One Year On”, nota informativa (Oxford, UK: giugno 2006).

88. World Bank, Global Monitoring Report 2009, op. cit. nota 1, p. 8; U.N. World Food Programme, “Financial Crisis and High Food Prices”, bollettino d’informazione (Roma: aggiornato l’11 giugno 2009).

89. World Bank, “Financial Crisis Could Trap 53 Million More People in Poverty”, (Washington, DC: 12 febbraio 2009); World Bank, Global Economic Prospects, op. cit. nota 6, pp. 11-12; Robert Zoellick, “Seizing Opportunity from Crisis: Making Multilateralism Work”, discorso tenuto al Thomas Reuters Building, Canary Wharf, Londra, 31 marzo 2009.

90. Costi per centrare gli obiettivi sociali della tabella 7.1 basati sulle seguenti fonti: istruzione primaria universale da U.K. Treasury, op. cit. nota 17; eliminazione dell’analfabetismo degli adulti da una stima dell’autore; programmi di pasti scolastici nei 44 paesi più poveri da McGovern, op. cit. nota 20; assistenza all’infanzia e alle donne in gravidanza nei 44 paesi più poveri da una stima dell’autore sull’estensione del U.S.’s Women, Infants, and Children program, ibid.; salute riproduttiva e pianificazione familiare da Speidel et al., op. cit. nota 69, e da Speidel, op. cit. nota 69; assistenza sanitaria di base universale da Sachs e da Commission on Macroeconomics and Health, op. cit. nota 27; compensare il deficit delle forniture di profilattici da UNFPA, op. cit. nota 33, e da Population Action International, op. cit. nota 33.

91. Sachs, Commission on Macroeconomics and Health, op. cit. nota 27.

92. Jeffrey D. Sachs, The End of Poverty: Economic Possibilities for Our Time, Penguin Group, New York 2005.