PIANO B 4.0 | Note capitolo 8

CAPITOLO 8. risanare la terra

1. Craig A. Cox, “Conservation Can Mean Life or Death”, Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, novembre/dicembre 2004.

2. Ibid.

3. U.N. Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), The State of the World’s Forests 2009 (Roma: 2009), pp. 109-15.

4. FAO, ForesSTAT, faostat.fao.org, aggiornato al 12 gennaio 2009, usando medie sui 5 anni; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Municipal Solid Waste in the United States: 2007 Facts and Figures (Washington, DC: 2008), p. 102.

5. FAO, op. cit. nota 3, p. 129; Daniel M. Kammen, “From Energy Efficiency to Social Utility: Lessons from Cookstove Design, Dissemination, and Use”, in José Goldemberg, Thomas B. Johansson, Energy as an Instrument for Socio-Economic Development (New York: U.N. Development Programme, 1995).

6. Kevin Porter, “Final Kakuma Evaluation: Solar Cookers Filled a Critical Gap”, in Solar Cookers International, Solar Cooker Review, vol. 10, n. 2 (novembre 2004); “Breakthrough in Kenyan Refugee Camps”, solar cooking.org/kakuma-m.htm, visionato il 30 luglio 2007.

7. FAO, Agriculture: Towards 2015/30, Technical Interim Report (Ginevra: Economic and Social Department, 2000), pp. 156-57.

8. Alliance for Forest Conservation and Sustainable Use, “WWF/World Bank Forest Alliance Launches Ambitious Program to Reduce Deforestation and Curb Illegal Logging”, comunicato stampa (New York: World Bank/WWF, 25 maggio 2005); WWF/World Bank Global Forest Alliance, Annual Report 2005 (Gland, Svizzera, e Washington, DC: dicembre 2006), p. 31.

9. Forest Stewardship Council (FSC), Forest Stewardship Council: News & Notes, vol. 7, numero 6 (luglio 2009); FSC, “Global FSC Certificates: Type and Distribution (marzo 2009)”, presentazione PowerPoint, www.fsc.org, giugno 2009.

10. A. Del Lungo, J. Ball, J. Carle, Global Planted Forests Thematic Study: Results and Analysis (Roma: FAO Forestry Department, dicembre 2006), p. 13; U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), Production, Supply and Distribution, www.fas.usda.gov/psdonline, aggiornato al 9 aprile 2009.

11. R. James, A. Del Lungo, “Comparisons of Estimates of ‘High Value’ Wood With Estimates of Total Forest Plantation Production”, in FAO, The Potential for Fast-Growing Commercial Forest Plantations to Supply High Value Roundwood (Roma: Forestry Department, febbraio 2005), p. 24; superficie delle piantagioni in “Table 4. Total Planted Forest Area: Productive and Protective – 61 Sampled Countries”, in Del Lungo, Ball, Carle, op. cit. nota 10, pp. 66-70.

12. Ashley T. Mattoon, “Paper Forests”, World Watch, marzo/aprile 1998, pp. 20-28; USDA, op. cit. nota 10.

13. FAO, op. cit. nota 7, p. 185; Chris Brown, D.J. Mead, eds., “Future Production from Forest Plantations”, Forest Plantation Thematic Paper (Roma: FAO, 2001), p. 9.

14. M. Davis et al., “New England – Acadian Forests”, in Taylor H. Ricketts et al., eds., Terrestrial Ecoregions of North America: A Conservation Assessment (Washington, DC: Island Press, 1999); David R. Foster, “Harvard Forest: Addressing Major Issues in Policy Debates and in the Understanding of Ecosystem Process and Pattern”, LTER Network News: The Newsletter of the Long Term Ecological Network, primavera/estate 1996; U.S. Forest Service, “2006 Forest Health Highlights”, fhm.fs.fed.us, visionato il 2 agosto 2007.

15. C. Csaki, “Agricultural Reforms in Central and Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union: Status and Perspectives”, Agricultural Economics, vol. 22 (2000), pp. 37-54; Igor Shvytov, Agriculturally Induced Environmental Problems in Russia, Discussion Paper n. 17 (Halle, Germania: Institute of Agricultural Development in Central and Eastern Europe, 1998), p. 13.

16. Se-Kyung Chong, “Anmyeon-do Recreation Forest: A Millennium of Management”, in Patrick B. Durst et al., In Search of Excellence: Exemplary Forest Management in Asia and the Pacific, Asia-Pacific Forestry Commission (Bangkok: FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific, 2005), pp. 251-59.

17. Ibid.

18. Turkish Foundation for Combating Soil Erosion, english.tema.org.tr, visionato il 31 luglio 2007.

19. Reed Funk, lettera all’autore, 9 agosto 2005.

20. U.S. Embassy, Niamey, Niger, “Niger: Greener Now Than 30 Years Ago”, ottobre 2006; Chris Reij, “More Success Stories in Africa’s Drylands Than Often Assumed”, presentazione Network of Farmers’ and Agricultural Producers’ Organisations of West Africa Forum on Food Sovereignty, 7-10 novembre 2006.

21. U.S. Embassy, op. cit. nota 20; Reij, op. cit. nota 20.

22. Vattenfall, Global Mapping of Greenhouse Gas Abatement Opportunities up to 2030: Forestry Sector Deep-Dive (Stoccolma: giugno 2007), p. 1.

23. “Forest Area and Area Change”, in FAO, op. cit. nota 3, pp. 109-15.

24. Johanna Son, “Philippines: Row Rages Over Lifting of Ban on Lumber Exports”, InterPress Service, 17 aprile 1998; John Aglionby, “Philippines Bans Logging After Fatal Floods”, Guardian (Londra), 6 dicembre 2004; Republic of the Philippines, “President Okays Selective Lifting of Log Ban”, comunicato stampa (Manila: 7 marzo 2005).

25. “Forestry Cuts Down on Logging”, China Daily, 26 maggio 1998; Erik Eckholm, “China Admits Ecological Sins Played Role in Flood Disaster”, New York Times, 26 agosto 1998; Erik Eckholm, “Stunned by Floods, China Hastens Logging Curbs”, New York Times, 27 settembre 1998; Chris Brown, Patrick B. Durst, Thomas Enters, Forests Out of Bounds: Impacts and Effectiveness of Logging Bans in Natural Forests in Asia-Pacific (Bangkok, Thailandia: FAO Regional Office for Asia Pacific, 2001); John Aglionby, “Philippines Bans Logging After Fatal Floods”, Guardian (Londra), 6 dicembre 2004.

26. Geoffrey Lean, “A Disaster to Take Everyone’s Breath Away”, The Independent (Londra), 24 luglio 2006; Daniel Nepstad, “Climate Change and the Forest”, Tomorrow’s Amazonia: Using and Abusing the World’s Last Great Forests (Washington, DC: The American Prospect, settembre 2007); S.S. Saatchi et al., “Distribution of Aboveground Live Biomass in the Amazon Rainforest”, Global Change Biology, vol. 13, n. 4 (aprile 2007), pp. 816-37.

27. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Climate Change 2007: Mitigation of Climate Change. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 2007), pp. 541-84; Vattenfall, op. cit. nota 22, p. 16; sequestro per albero calcolato assuemndo 500 alberi per ettaro da U.N. Environment Programme (UNEP), Billion Tree Campaign, “Fast Facts”, www.unep.org/billiontreecampaign, visionato il 10 ottobre 2007; periodo di crescita da Robert N. Stavins, Kenneth R. Richards, The Cost of U.S. Forest Based Carbon Sequestration (Arlington, VA: Pew Center on Global Climate Change, gennaio 2005), p. 10.

28. Potenziale di sequestro del carbonio da IPCC, op. cit. nota 27, pp. 543, 559.

29. Johan Eliasch, Climate Change: Financing Global Forests (Londra: The Stationary Office Limited for Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, 2008), pp. xvi-xvii, 69-80; McKinsey & Company, Pathways to a Low Carbon Economy: Version 2 of the Global Greenhouse Gas Abatement Cost Curve (Londra: 2009).

30. UNEP, Billion Tree Campaign, www.unep.org/billiontreecampaign, visionato il 13 luglio 2009; sequestro di carbonio calcolato assumendo che tre quarti degli alberi siano nei tropici e un quarto nelle regioni temperate, utilizzando ratei di sequestro da Vattenfall, op. cit. nota 22, p. 16; UNEP, “Tree Planting Campaign Hits Four Billion Mark”, comunicato stampa (Nairobi: 10 giugno 2009).

31. UNEP, “The State of Paranà¡ in Brazil Undertakes a Major Reforestation Project”, www.unep.org/billiontreecampaign/CampaignNews, visionato il 12 ottobre 2007; UNEP, “31 luglio – The Greenest Day of the Calendar in India and a Tree Planting Record by 600,000 Volunteers”, www.unep.org/Documents.Multilingual, visionato il 12 ottobre 2007.

32. Chang-Ran Kim, “Tokyo Turns to Rooftop Gardens to Beat the Heat”, Reuters, 7 agosto 2002; Washington, D.C., programma da Casey Trees, www.caseytrees.org, visionato il 17 giugno 2009.

33. Kathy Wolf, “Urban Forest Values: Economic Benefits of Trees in Cities”, bollettino d’informazione (Seattle, WA: Center for Urban Horticulture, novembre 1998); Greg McPherson et al., “Municipal Forest Benefits and Costs in Five US Cities”, Journal of Forestry, dicembre 2005, pp. 411-16.

34. “The Great North American Dust Bowl: A Cautionary Tale”, in Secretariat of the U.N. Convention to Combat Desertification, Global Alarm: Dust and Sandstorms from the World’s Drylands (Bangkok: 2002), pp. 77-121.

35. Jeffrey Zinn, Conservation Reserve Program: Status and Current Issues (Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, 8 maggio 2001); USDA, Economic Research Service, Agri-Environmental Policy at the Crossroads: Guideposts on a Changing Landscape (Washington, DC: 2001).

36. USDA, Natural Resources Conservation Service, CORE4 Conservation Practices Training Guide: The Common Sense Approach to Natural Resource Conservation (Washington, DC: agosto 1999); Rolf Derpsch, “Frontiers in Conservation Tillage and Advances in Conservation Practice”, in D.E. Stott, R.H. Mohtar, G.C. Steinhardt, eds., Sustaining the Global Farm, 10th International Soil Conservation Organization Meeting, Purdue University e USDA-ARS National Soil Erosion Research Laboratory, 24-29 maggio 1999 (Washington, DC: 2001), pp. 248-54.

37. Rolf Derpsch, Theodor Friedrich, “Development and Current Status of No-till Adoption in the World”, presentazione per l’International Soil Tillage Research Conference, Izmir, Turchia, 16 giugno 2009; Conservation Technology Information Center, Purdue University, “National Tillage Trends (1990-2004)”, da 2004 National Crop Residue Management Survey Data; FAO, Intensifying Crop Production with Conservation Agriculture, www.fao.org/ag, visionato il 20 maggio 2003.

38. FAO, op. cit. nota 37.

39. Souhail Karam, “Drought-Hit North Africa Seen Hunting for Grains”, Reuters, 15 luglio 2005.

40. Godwin Nnanna, “Africa’s Message for China”, China Dialogue, 18 aprile 2007; International Institute for Sustainable Development, “African Regional Coverage Project”, Eighth African Union Summit – Briefing Note, vol. 7, numero 2 (7 febbraio 2007), p. 8; Federal Republic of Nigeria, Ministry of Environment, “Green Wall Sahara Programme”, www.greenwallsahara.org, visionato il 17 ottobre 2007; Anne Woodfine, Sandrine Jauffret, Scope and Pre-Feasibility Study on the Great Green Wall for the Sahara and Sahel Initiative (Hemel Hempstead, U.K.: HTPSE Ltd., giugno 2009).

41. Evan Ratliff, “The Green Wall of China”, Wired, aprile 2003; Wang Yan, “China’s Forest Shelter Project Dubbed ‘Green Great Wall'”, Xinhua News Agency, 9 luglio 2006; Sun Xiufang, Ralph Bean, China Solid Wood Products Annual Report 2002 (Beijing: USDA, 2002); Jonathan Watts, “China Suspends Reforestation Project over Food Shortage Fears”, Guardian (Londra), 23 giugno 2009.

42. Conversazione dell’autore con funzionari della Helin County, Mongolia interna (Nei Monggol), 17 maggio 2002.

43. Ibid.

44. U.S. Embassy, Grapes of Wrath in Inner Mongolia (Beijing: maggio 2001).

45. A. Banerjee, “Dairying Systems in India”, World Animal Review, vol. 79/2 (Roma: FAO, 1994).

46. Rattan Lal, “Soil Carbon Sequestration Impacts on Global Climate Change and Food Security”, Science, vol. 304 (11 giugno 2004), pp. 1.623-27.

47. Partnership for Interdisciplinary Studies of Coastal Oceans, The Science of Marine Reserves, 2nd ed., International Version (Oregon e California: 2007).

48. Ibid.

49. W. Renema et al., “Hopping Hotspots: Global Shifts in Marine Biodiversity”, Science, vol. 321, n. 5889 (1° agosto 2008), pp. 654-57.

50. “About the Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument”, hawaii reef.noaa.gov/about/welcome.html, visionato l’8 maggio 2009; John M. Broder, “Bush to Protect Vast New Pacific Tracts”, New York Times, 6 gennaio 2009; “Establishment of the Marianas Trench Marine National Monument”, Proclamation 8335, “Establishment of the Pacific Remote Islands Marine National Monument”, Proclamation 8336, e “Establishment of the Rose Atoll Marine National Monument”, Proclamation 8337, Federal Register, vol. 74, n. 7 (12 gennaio 2009); U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, “Establishment of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Marine National Monument”, www.fws.gov/midway/presidential%20 proclamation.pdf, visionato l’11 maggio 2009.

51. Population Reference Bureau, Datafinder, www.prb.org/DataFinder.aspx, aggiornato 2008; Emma Young, “Ocean Biodiversity: Depths of Ignorance”, New Scientist, 12 aprile 2008.

52. Andrew Balmford et al., “The Worldwide Costs of Marine Protected Areas”, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol. 101, n. 26 (29 giugno 2004), pp. 9.694-97; Tim Radford, “Marine Parks Can Solve Global Fish Crisis, Experts Say”, Guardian (Londra), 15 giugno 2004.

53. Balmford et al., op. cit. nota 52; Radford, op. cit. nota 52.

54. Radford, op. cit. nota 52; Richard Black, “Protection Needed for ‘Marine Serengetis'”, BBC News, 4 agosto 2003; Balmford et al., op. cit. nota 52.

55. American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), “Leading Marine Scientists Release New Evidence that Marine Reserves Produce Enormous Benefits within Their Boundaries and Beyond”, comunicato stampa (Washington, DC: 12 marzo 2001); “Scientific Consensus Statement on Marine Reserves and Marine Protected Areas”, presentato al AAAS annual meeting, 15-20 febbraio 2001.

56. AAAS, op. cit. nota 55; “Scientific Consensus Statement”, op. cit. nota 55, p. 2.

57. R.J. Diaz, J. Nestlerode, M.L. Diaz, “A Global Perspective on the Effects of Eutrophication and Hypoxia on Aquatic Biota”, in G.L. Rupp, M.D. White, eds., Proceedings of the 7th Annual Symposium on Fish Physiology, Toxicology and Water Quality, Estonia, 12-15 maggio 2003 (Atene, GA: EPA, Ecosystems Research Division, 2004); UNEP, GEO Yearbook 2003 (Nairobi: 2004); R.J. Diaz, R. Rosenberg, “Spreading Dead Zones and Consequences for Marine Ecosystems”, Science, vol. 321 (15 agosto 2008), pp. 926-29.

58. WWF, Hard Facts, Hidden Problems: A Review of Current Data on Fishing Subsidies (Washington, DC: 2001), pp. ii; Balmford et al., op. cit. nota 52; Radford, op. cit. nota 52; i sussidi alla pesca includono i sussidi “perversi” e i sussidi per i carburanti come stimati da Fisheries Center, University of British Columbia, Catching More Bait: A Bottom-Up Re-Estimation of Global Fisheries Subsidies (2nd Version) (Vancouver, BC: 2006), p. 21.

59. U.N. Population Division, World Population Prospects: The 2008 Revision Population Database, esa.un.org/unpp, aggiornato all’11 marzo 2009.

60. World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF), “Problems: Inadequate Protection”, www.panda.org, visionato l’8 maggio 2009.

61. Conservation International, “Biodiversity Hotspots”, www.biodiversity hotspots.org, visionato l’8 maggio 2009.

62. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, “The Endangered Species Act of 1973”, pubblicato su www.fws.gov/endangered, visionato il 31 luglio 2007.

63. Tabella 8.1 dalle seguenti fonti: piantare alberi per ridurre le inondazioni e proteggere il suolo da Lester R. Brown, Edward C. Wolf, “Reclaiming the Future”, in Lester R. Brown et al., State of the World 1988, W.W. Norton & Company, New York 1988, p. 174, usando dati da FAO, Fuelwood Supplies in the Developing Countries, Forestry Paper 42 (Roma: 1983); piantare alberi per il sequestro di CO2 basato su IPCC, op. cit. nota 27, pp. 543, 559; rigenerare i pascoli da UNEP, Status of Desertification and Implementation of the United Nations Plan of Action to Combat Desertification (Nairobi: 1991), pp. 73-92; rigenerare le zone di pesca da Balmford et al., op. cit. nota 52; proteggere la biodiversità  da World Parks Congress, Recommendations of the Vth IUCN World Parks Congress (Durban, South Africa: 2003), pp. 17-19, e da World Parks Congress, “The Durban Accord”, www.iucn.org/themes/wcpa, visionato il 19 ottobre 2007; stabilizzare le falde freatiche da una stima dell’autore.

64. Chong, op. cit. nota 16.

65. Brown, Wolf, op. cit. nota 63, p. 175.

66. Runsheng Yin et al., “China’s Ecological Rehabilitation: The Unprecedented Efforts and Dramatic Impacts of Reforestation and Slope Protection in Western China”, in Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, China Environment Forum, China Environment Series, numero 7 (Washington, DC: 2005), pp. 17-32.

67. Brown, Wolf, op. cit. nota 63, p. 176.

68. IPCC, op. cit. nota 27, pp. 543, 559.

69. Brown, Wolf, op. cit. nota 63, p. 173-74.

70. Ibid., p. 174.

71. Ibid.

72. Ibid.

73. Rigenerazione dei pascoli da UNEP, op. cit. nota 63, pp. 73-92; U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis, “Table C.1. GDP and Other Major NIPA Aggregates”, in Survey of Current Business, settembre 2005, p. D-48.

74. H.E. Dregne, Nan-Ting Chou, “Global Desertification Dimensions and Costs”, in H. E. Dregne, ed., Degradation and Restoration of Arid Lands (Lubbock, TX: Texas Tech. University, 1992); rigenerazione dei pascoli da UNEP, op. cit. nota 63, pp. 73-92.

75. Balmford et al., op. cit. nota 52.

76. World Parks Congress, Recommendations, op. cit. nota 63, pp. 17-19; World Parks Congress, “The Durban Accord”, op. cit. nota 63.

77. FAO, ResourceSTAT, faostat.fao.org, aggiornato ad aprile 2009.

78. Giordania da Tom Gardner-Outlaw, Robert Engelman, Sustaining Water, Easing Scarcity: A Second Update (Washington, DC: Population Action International, 1997); Messico da Sandra Postel, Last Oasis, W.W. Norton & Company, New York 1997, pp. 150-51.

79. Sandra Postel, Pillar of Sand, W.W. Norton & Company, New York 1999, pp. 230-35; Messico da Postel, op. cit. nota 78, pp. 167-68.